• Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

      Nadeem, Montasser; Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ryan, Cornelius A (2011-02-04)
      Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.
    • Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

      McDonald, Fiona B; Dempsey, Eugene M; O'Halloran, Ken D (Frontiers in Physiology, 2016-03)
      Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.
    • Early life opportunities for prevention of diabetes in low and middle income countries

      Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Ma, Ronald CW; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien G (2012-11-23)
      Abstract Background The global burden of diabetes and other non-communicable diseases is rising dramatically worldwide and is causing a double poor health burden in low- and middle-income countries. Early life influences play an important part in this scenario because maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes and obesity affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. This indicates important periods during the lifecourse when interventions could have powerful affects in reducing incidence of non-communicable diseases. However, interventions to promote diet and lifestyle in prospective parents before conception have not received sufficient attention, especially in low- and middle-income countries undergoing socio-economic transition. Discussion Interventions to produce weight loss in adults or to reduce weight gain in pregnancy have had limited success and might be too late to produce the largest effects on the health of the child and his/her later risk of non-communicable diseases. A very important factor in the prevention of the developmental component of diabetes risk is the physiological state in which the parents enter pregnancy. We argue that the most promising strategy to improve prospective parents’ body composition and lifestyle is the promotion of health literacy in adolescents. Multiple but integrated forms of community-based interventions that focus on nutrition, physical activity, family planning, breastfeeding and infant feeding practices are needed. They need to address the wider social economic context in which adolescents live and to be linked with existing public health programmes in sexual and reproductive health and maternal and child health initiatives. Summary Interventions aimed at ensuring a healthy body composition, diet and lifestyle before pregnancy offer a most effective solution in many settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries undergoing socio-economic transition. Preparing a mother, her partner and her future child for “the 1000 days”, whether from planned or unplanned conception would break the cycle of risk and demonstrate benefit in the shortest possible time. Such interventions will be particularly important in adolescents and young women in disadvantaged groups and can improve the physiological status of the fetus as well as reduce the prevalence of pregnancy conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus which both predispose to non-communicables diseases in both the mother and her child. Pre-conception interventions require equipping prospective parents with the necessary knowledge and skills to make healthy lifestyle choices for themselves and their children. Addressing the promotion of such health literacy in parents-to-be in low- and middle-income countries requires a wider social perspective. It requires a range of multisectoral agencies to work together and could be linked to the issues of women’s empowerment, to reproductive health, to communicable disease prevention and to the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.
    • Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

      Packard, Chris J; Bezylak, Vladimir; McLean, Jennifer S; Batty, G David; Ford, Ian; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A; Henderson, Marion; McGinty, Agnes; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Velupillai, Yoga N; Tannahill, Carol (2011-01-17)
      Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.
    • Early orthognathic surgery in response to bullying due to malocclusion

      O’Keefe, Con (Irish Dental Association, 2017-01)
    • Eastern Health Board outcome of Orthodontic assessment

      McNamara, CM; Field, D; Crowley, N (1998)
    • Eating patterns and factors influencing likely change in the workplace

      Fleming, Sean; Kelleher, Cecily; O'Connor M; National Nutrition Surveillance Centre, Department of Health Promotion, University College Galway, Eastern Health Board (1997)
    • Ebola – prepare yourself in less than 15 minutes

      Nolan, Lisa (Nursing in General Practice, 2015-01)
    • Ebola, Zika and the International Health Regulations – implications for Port Health Preparedness

      Glynn, R. W; Boland, M. (2016-11-21)
      Abstract Background The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa in 2014-2015 was unprecedented in terms of its scale and consequence.  This, together with the emergence of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016, has again highlighted the potential for disease to spread across international borders and provided an impetus for countries to review their Port Health preparedness. This report reviews the legislative framework and actions taken under this framework in advancing and improving Port Health preparedness in Ireland, in response to the declaration of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern for Ebola Virus Disease in August 2014. Findings Infectious disease Shipping and Aircraft Regulations were brought into force in Ireland in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Preparatory actions taken under these and the International Health Regulations necessitated significant levels of cross disciplinary working with other organisations, both within and beyond traditional healthcare settings. Information packs on Ebola Virus Disease were prepared and distributed to airports, airlines, port authorities and shipping agents, and practical exercises were held at relevant sites. Agreements were put in place for contact tracing of passenger and crew on affected conveyances and protocols were established for the management of Medical Declarations of Health from ships coming from West Africa. Conclusions The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa resulted in significant strengthening of Ireland’s Port Health preparedness, while also highlighting the extent to which preparedness requires ongoing and sustained commitment from all stakeholders, both nationally and internationally, in ensuring that countries are ready when the next threat presents at their borders.
    • Economic appraisal in health: some conceptual and methodological issues

      Durkan, Joe; University College Dublin. Graduate School of Business. Centre for Health Economics (University College Dublin. Graduate School of Business, 1994)
    • Economic aspects of general medical practice

      Foley, Anthony; Irish Medical Organisation (IMO) (1992-08)
    • Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

      Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique; Berglund, Marika; Castaño, Argelia; Čejchanová, Mája; Crettaz, Pierre; Davidson, Fred; Esteban, Marta; Fischer, Marc E; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Halzlova, Katarina; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Koppen, Gudrun; Ligocka, Danuta; Miklavčič, Ana; Reis, M Fátima; Rudnai, Peter; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; DEMO/COPHES (2013-01-07)
      Abstract Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial economic benefits in Europe, mainly in southern countries. Some data may not be entirely representative, some countries were not covered, and anticipated changes in mercury pollution all suggest a need for extended biomonitoring of human MeHg exposure.
    • Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of pharmacist-supervized patient self-testing of warfarin therapy

      Gallagher, J.; Mc Carthy, S.; Woods, N.; Ryan, F.; O' Shea, S.; Byrne, S. (Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2014-10)
    • Economic Evaluation of Early Intervention in Psychosis in Comparison to Treatment as Usual

      Behan, Caragh; School of Medicine, University College Dublin (University College Dublin, 2017)
    • Economic evaluation of robot-assisted hysterectomy: a cost-minimisation analysis

      Teljeur, C; O'Neill, M; Moran, PS; Harrington, P; Flattery, M; Murphy, L; Ryan, M (BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2014-05)
    • Educational psychology in Ireland and its Psychological Society of Ireland division – a history

      Swan, Desmond; University College Dublin, Ireland (The Irish Journal of Psychology, 2014-05)
    • Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

      O'Driscoll, Jeremiah; Kerin, Fearghal; Delahunt, Eamonn (2011-06-09)
      Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.
    • Effect of a family focused active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children

      O’Dwyer, Mareesa V; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe; Stratton, Gareth (2012-10-01)
      Abstract Background Early childhood provides a window of opportunity for the promotion of physical activity. Given the limited effectiveness of interventions to date, new approaches are needed. Socio-ecological models suggest that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier lifestyles in children. This study describes the effectiveness of a family-focused ‘Active Play’ intervention in decreasing sedentary time and increasing total physical activity in preschool children. Method Seventy-seven families were recruited from 8 randomly selected SureStart children’s centres in the North West of England. Centres were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 4) or a comparison group (n = 4). Parents and children in the intervention group received a 10-week active play programme delivered by trained active play professionals; this included an activity and educational component. Families in the comparison group were asked to maintain their usual routine. Each participating parent and child wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and post-test. Week and weekend day sedentary time and total physical activity adjusted for child- and home- level covariates were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time and physical activity for both week and weekend days. Children in the intervention group engaged in 1.5% and 4.3% less sedentary time during week and weekend days, respectively and 4.5% and 13.1% more physical activity during week and weekend days, respectively than children in the comparison group. Parent’s participation in sport and their physical activity levels, child’s sex, availability of media in the home and attendance at organised activities were significant predictors of sedentary time and physical activity in this age group. Conclusion A 10-week family focused active play intervention produced positive changes in sedentary time and total physical activity levels in preschool children. Specific covariates were identified as having a significant effect on the outcome measures. Moreover, children whose parents were active engaged in less sedentary time and more physical activity suggesting that parent’s activity habits are mediators of physical activity engagement in this age group.
    • The effect of alcohol consumption on household income in Ireland

      Ormond, Gillian; Murphy, Rosemary; Department of Accounting and Economics, Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland. Department of Economics, University College Cork, Ireland. (Elsevier, 2016-11)