• Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

      Garvey, John F; McNicholas, Walter T; Sleep Research Laboratory, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. john.garvey@ucd.ie (2010-02)
      Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.
    • Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

      O'Shea, Eamon; Devane, Declan; Murphy, Kathy; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Edel; Irish Centre for Social Gerontology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. eamon.oshea@nuigalway.ie (2011-02)
      Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units.
    • The ExPeCT (Examining Exercise, Prostate Cancer and Circulating Tumour Cells) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

      Sheill, Gráinne; Brady, Lauren; Guinan, Emer; Hayes, Brian; Casey, Orla; Greene, John; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Cahill, Fidelma; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Peat, Nicola; et al. (Trials, 2017-10-04)
      Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the second most common cancer in Ireland. Many men present with locally advanced or metastatic cancer for whom curative surgery is inappropriate. Advanced cancer patients are encouraged to remain physically active and therefore there is a need to investigate how patients with metastatic disease tolerate physical activity programmes. Physical activity reduces levels of systemic inflammatory mediators and so an aerobic exercise intervention may represent an accessible and cost-effective means of ameliorating the pro-inflammatory effects of obesity and subsequently decrease poor cancer-specific outcomes in this patient population. This study will assess the feasibility and safety of introducing a structured aerobic exercise intervention to an advanced cancer population. This study will also examine if the evasion of immune editing by circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is an exercise-modifiable mechanism in obese men with prostate cancer.
    • Group follow-up compared to individual clinic visits after structured education for type 1 diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

      Dinneen, Sean F; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Byrne, Molly; Smith, Diarmuid; Courtney, Christopher H; McGurk, Colm; Heller, Simon R; Newell, John; Coffey, Norma; Breen, Cathy; et al. (Diabetes research and clinical practice, 2013-04)
      To compare the effectiveness of group follow-up with individual follow-up after participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme.
    • INSPIRE (INvestigating Social and PractIcal suppoRts at the End of life): Pilot randomised trial of a community social and practical support intervention for adults with life-limiting illness.

      McLoughlin, Kathleen; Rhatigan, Jim; McGilloway, Sinead; Kellehear, Allan; Lucey, Michael; Twomey, Feargal; Conroy, Marian; Herrera-Molina, Emillio; Kumar, Suresh; Furlong, Mairead; et al. (BMC palliative care, 2015-11-24)
      For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).
    • Linguistic and psychometric validation of the Diabetes-Specific Quality-of-Life Scale in U.K. English for adults with type 1 diabetes.

      Cooke, Debbie; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Beinart, Naomi; Heller, Simon; La Marca, Roberto; Byrne, Molly; Mansell, Peter; Dinneen, Sean F; Clark, Marie; Bond, Rod; et al. (Diabetic Care, 2013-05)
      To develop a linguistically and psychometrically validated U.K. English (U.K./Ireland) version of the Diabetes-Specific Quality-of-Life Scale (DSQOLS) for adults with type 1 diabetes.
    • Participation in everyday activities and quality of life in pre-teenage children living with cerebral palsy in South West Ireland.

      Mc Manus, Vicki; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; School of Nursing and Midwifery, UCC, Cork, Republic of Ireland. v.mcmanus@ucc.ie (2008)
      BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in children but its impact on quality of life is not well understood. This study examined participation in everyday activities among children without CP and children with mild, moderate and severe impairment due to CP. We then examined ten domains of quality of life in children with CP and investigated whether participation in everyday activities was associated with improved quality of life independent of gender, age and level of impairment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-12 years based on two questionnaires, frequency of participation (FPQ) and KIDSCREEN, completed by parents of 98 children on the South of Ireland Cerebral Palsy Register (response rate = 82%) and parents of 448 children attending two Cork city schools (response rate = 69%) who completed one questionnaire (FPQ). Multiple linear regression was used: firstly to estimate the effect of severity of CP on participation in everyday activities independent of age and gender and secondly we estimated the effect of participation on quality of life independent of age gender and level of impairment. RESULTS: Participation in 11 of the 14 everyday activities examined varied across the children without CP and the children with varying severity of CP. In general, increased impairment decreased participation. Independent of age and gender, there was a highly significant decrease in overall participation with a fall of -6.0 (95% CI = -6.9 to -5.2) with each increasing level of impairment. The children with CP generally had high quality of life. Increased impairment was associated with diminished quality of life in just two domains - Physical well-being and Social support and peers. Overall participation in everyday activities was significantly associated with quality of life in 3 of the 10 domains (Physical well-being, Social support and peers & Moods and emotions) in analysis adjusted for gender age and level of impairment. CONCLUSION: While increased impairment due to CP restricts participation in the majority of everyday activities, the level of participation has a limited effect on the quality of life of the children with CP in age 8-12 years.
    • A passion for learning.

      O'Grady, Paul; Cork Dental School. (2011-07-06)
    • Quality of life of palliative chemotherapy naive patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction treated with irinotecan combined with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid: results of a randomised phase III trial.

      Curran, Desmond; Pozzo, Carmelo; Zaluski, Jerzy; Dank, Magdalena; Barone, Carlo; Valvere, Vahur; Yalcin, Suayib; Peschel, Christian; Wenczl, Miklós; Goker, Erdem; et al. (2009-09)
      PURPOSE: The quality of life (QL) of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving irinotecan, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (IF arm) or cisplatin with 5-FU (CF arm) is presented. METHODS: Patients with measurable or evaluable advanced gastric cancer received IF weekly for 6/7 weeks or CF q4 weeks. QL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline, subsequently every 8 weeks until progression and thereafter every 3 months until death. The QL data were analysed using several statistical methods including summary measures and pattern-mixture modelling. RESULTS: A total of 333 patients were randomised and treated (IF 170, CF 163). The time-to-progression for IF and CF was 5.0 and 4.2 months (P = 0.088), respectively. The overall compliance rates for QL questionnaire completion were 60 and 56% in the IF and CF arms, respectively. Significant treatment differences were observed for the physical functioning scale (P = 0.024), nausea\vomiting (P = 0.001) and EQ-5D thermometer (P = 0.020) in favour of the IF treatment arm. CONCLUSION: There was a trend in favour of IF over CF in time-to-progression. The IF group also demonstrated a better safety profile than CF and a better QL on a number of multi-item scales, suggesting that IF offers an alternative first-line platinum-free treatment option for advanced gastric cancer.
    • Schizophrenia and quality of life: a one-year follow-up in four EU countries.

      Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Xavier, Miguel; Moreno Kustner, Berta; Suchocka, Agnieszka; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Dubuis, Jacques; Lacalmontie, Elisabeth; Pellet, Jacques; Roelandt, Jean-Luc; Walsh, Dermot; et al. (2006)
      BACKGROUND: This article systematically monitors the quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia from seven different sites across four European countries: France, Ireland, Portugal and Spain. METHODS: A one-year prospective cohort study was carried out. Inclusion criteria for patients were: a clinical lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 (F20) diagnostic criteria for research, age between 18 and 65 years and at least one contact with mental health services in 1993. Data concerning QOL were recorded in seven sites from four countries: France, Portugal, Ireland and Spain, and were obtained using the Baker and Intagliata scale. At baseline, 339 patients answered the QOL questionnaire. At one-year follow-up, Spain could not participate, so only 263 patients were contacted and 219 agreed to take part. QOL was compared across centres by areas and according to a global index. QOL was correlated with presence of clinical and social problems, needs for care and interventions provided during the one-year follow-up. RESULTS: We did not find any link between gender and QOL. There were some significant differences between centres concerning many items. What is more, these differences were relative: in Lisbon where the lowest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were satisfied with food but highly dissatisfied with finances, whereas in St Etienne, where the highest level of satisfaction was recorded, people were less satisfied with food when they were more satisfied with finances. The evolution in one year among those respondents who took part in the follow-up (excluding the subjects from Granada) showed different patterns depending on the items. CONCLUSION: The four countries have different resources and patients live in rather different conditions. However, the main differences as far as their QOL is concerned very much depend on extra-psychiatric variables, principally marital status and income.
    • Self-rated health and quality of life in adults attending regional disability services in Ireland.

      Boland, Máirín C; Daly, Leslie; Staines, Anthony; UCD School of Public Health and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. mairin.boland@hse.ie (2009-04)
      There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.
    • Use of autologous bone graft in anterior cervical decompression: morbidity & quality of life analysis.

      Heneghan, Helen M; McCabe, John P; Department of Surgery, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. helenheneghan@hotmail.com (2009)
      BACKGROUND: Autologous iliac crest graft has long been the gold standard graft material used in cervical fusion. However its harvest has significant associated morbidity, including protracted postoperative pain scores at the harvest site. Thus its continued practice warrants scrutiny, particularly now that alternatives are available. Our aims were to assess incidence and nature of complications associated with iliac crest harvest when performed in the setting of Anterior Cervical Decompression (ACD). Also, to perform a comparative analysis of patient satisfaction and quality of life scores after ACD surgeries, when performed with and without iliac graft harvest. METHODS: All patients who underwent consecutive ACD procedures, with and without the use of autologous iliac crest graft, over a 48 month period were included (n = 53). Patients were assessed clinically at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively and administered 2 validated quality of life questionnaires: the SF-36 and Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaires (Response rate 96%). Primary composite endpoints included incidence of bone graft donor site morbidity, pain scores, operative duration, and quality of life scores. RESULTS: Patients who underwent iliac graft harvest experienced significant peri-operative donor site specific morbidity, including a high incidence of pain at the iliac crest (90%), iliac wound infection (7%), a jejunal perforation, and longer operative duration (285 minutes vs. 238 minutes, p = 0.026). Longer term follow-up demonstrated protracted postoperative pain at the harvest site and significantly lower mental health scores on both quality of life instruments, for those patients who underwent autologous graft harvest CONCLUSION: ACD with iliac crest graft harvest is associated with significant iliac crest donor site morbidity and lower quality of life at greater than 12 months post operatively. This is now avoidable by using alternatives to autologous bone without compromising clinical or technical outcome.
    • A walking programme and a supervised exercise class versus usual physiotherapy for chronic low back pain: a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. (The Supervised Walking In comparison to Fitness Training for Back Pain (SWIFT) Trial).

      Hurley, Deirdre A; O'Donoghue, Grainne; Tully, Mark A; Moffett, Jennifer Klaber; van Mechelen, Willem; Daly, Leslie; Boreham, Colin Ag; McDonough, Suzanne M; School of Physiotherapy & Performance Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. deirdre.hurleyosing@ucd.ie (2009)
      BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a persistent disabling condition with rising significant healthcare, social and economic costs. Current research supports the use of exercise-based treatment approaches that encourage people with CLBP to assume a physically active role in their recovery. While international clinical guidelines and systematic reviews for CLBP support supervised group exercise as an attractive first-line option for treating large numbers of CLBP patients at low cost, barriers to their delivery include space and time restrictions in healthcare settings and poor patient attendance. The European Clinical Guidelines have identified the need for research in the use of brief/minimal contact self-activation interventions that encourage participation in physical activity for CLBP. Walking may be an ideally suited form of individualized exercise prescription as it is easy to do, requires no special skills or facilities, and is achievable by virtually all ages with little risk of injury, but its effectiveness for LBP is unproven. METHODS AND DESIGN: This study will be an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial that will investigate the difference in clinical effectiveness and costs of an individualized walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy, which will act as the control group, in people with chronic low back pain. A sample of 246 patients will be recruited in Dublin, Ireland through acute general hospital outpatient physiotherapy departments that provide treatment for people with CLBP. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three groups in a concealed manner. The main outcomes will be functional disability, pain, quality of life, fear avoidance, back beliefs, physical activity, satisfaction and costs, which will be evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months [follow-up by pre-paid postage]. Qualitative telephone interviews and focus groups will be embedded in the research design to obtain feedback about participants' experiences of the interventions and trial participation, and to inform interpretation of the quantitative data. Planned analysis will be by intention to treat (quantitative data) and thematic analysis (qualitative data) DISCUSSION: The trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy in people with CLBP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trial ISRCTN17592092.
    • What are the physical and psychological health effects of suicide bereavement on family members? Protocol for an observational and interview mixed-methods study in Ireland.

      Spillane, Ailbhe; Larkin, Celine; Corcoran, Paul; Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Arensman, Ella (BMJ Open, 2017-03-30)
      Research indicates that experiencing the suicide of a relative can have a significant impact on family members' emotional health. However, research incorporating the impact of suicide bereavement on family members' physical health is sparse. This paper details the protocol for a mixed-methods study of suicide-bereaved family members. The study will primarily examine the physical and mental health needs of those bereaved by suicide. A secondary objective of the study is to describe the support service needs of family members bereaved by suicide.