• Analysis of methods of providing anonymity in facial photographs; a randomised controlled study.

      Clover, A J P; Fitzpatrick, E; Healy, C; Department of Plastic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork. j.clover@ucc.ie (2010-09)
      Clinical images are invaluable in medical teaching and research publications. In the past efforts to conceal patient identity, if any, were limited to a black bar concealing the eyes. However, there is no consensus on this among major journals and publishing houses. This research analyses the effectiveness of blacking out the eyes in facial photographs and evaluates alternative techniques. 126 questionnaires were completed. The average numbers of correct responses out of 30 was 24.64 (82.13%) in the control group, 20.59 (68.63%) in the eyes, 20.42 (68.07%) in the eyes and nose group, and 17.53 (58.43%) in the T-shaped group (eyes, nose and mouth). The traditional method of covering the eyes does significantly decrease recognition, however it is only as effective as covering the nose and mouth. The more of the face that is covered the less likely it is that the person is recognised. However, there are people who remain identifiable no matter how much of the face is covered. This work highlights the importance of obtaining consent prior to publication as well as attempting to hide identity.
    • Frontonasal dysmorphology in bipolar disorder by 3D laser surface imaging and geometric morphometrics: comparisons with schizophrenia.

      Hennessy, Robin J; Baldwin, Patrizia A; Browne, David J; Kinsella, Anthony; Waddington, John L; Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-09)
      Any developmental relationship between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia engenders continuing debate. As the brain and face emerge in embryological intimacy, brain dysmorphogenesis is accompanied by facial dysmorphogenesis. 3D laser surface imaging was used to capture the facial surface of 13 male and 14 female patients with bipolar disorder in comparison with 61 male and 75 female control subjects and with 37 male and 32 female patients with schizophrenia. Surface images were analysed using geometric morphometrics and 3D visualisations to identify domains of facial shape that distinguish bipolar patients from controls and bipolar patients from those with schizophrenia. Both male and female bipolar patients evidenced significant facial dysmorphology: common to male and female patients was overall facial widening, increased width of nose, narrowing of mouth and upward displacement of the chin; dysmorphology differed between male and female patients for nose length, lip thickness and tragion height. There were few morphological differences in comparison with schizophrenia patients. That dysmorphology of the frontonasal prominences and related facial regions in bipolar disorder is more similar to than different from that found in schizophrenia indicates some common dysmorphogenesis. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia might reflect similar insult(s) acting over slightly differing time-frames or slightly differing insult(s) acting over a similar time-frame.