• Bringing Shame Out of the Shadows: Identifying Shame in Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Processes and Implications for Psychotherapy.

      McElvaney, Rosaleen; Lateef, Rusan; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Alaggia, Ramona; Simpson, Megan; Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. 2McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 3University of Toronto, Canada. 4Carlton University, Ottawa, Canada. (SAGE Journals, 2021-08-30)
    • The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on North American milk banks.

      Cohen, Mathilde; Cassidy, Tanya; UConn School of Law, Hartford, Connecticut, USA. 2School of Nursing, Psychotherapy and Community Health, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. (Wiley, 2021-06-30)
    • Th2 Modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Channels: An Unmet Therapeutic Intervention for Atopic Dermatitis.

      Meng, Jianghui; Li, Yanqing; Fischer, Michael J M; Steinhoff, Martin; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Jiafu (2021-06-30)
      Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifaceted, chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that affects people of all ages. It is characterized by chronic eczema, constant pruritus, and severe discomfort. AD often progresses from mild annoyance to intractable pruritic inflammatory lesions associated with exacerbated skin sensitivity. The T helper-2 (Th2) response is mainly linked to the acute and subacute phase, whereas Th1 response has been associated in addition with the chronic phase. IL-17, IL-22, TSLP, and IL-31 also play a role in AD. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play a significant role in neuroinflammation, itch and pain, indicating neuroimmune circuits in AD. However, the Th2-driven cutaneous sensitization of TRP channels is underappreciated. Emerging findings suggest that critical Th2-related cytokines cause potentiation of TRP channels, thereby exaggerating inflammation and itch sensation. Evidence involves the following: (i) IL-13 enhances TRPV1 and TRPA1 transcription levels; (ii) IL-31 sensitizes TRPV1 via transcriptional and channel modulation, and indirectly modulates TRPV3 in keratinocytes; (iii) The Th2-cytokine TSLP increases TRPA1 synthesis in sensory neurons. These changes could be further enhanced by other Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-25, and IL-33, which are inducers for IL-13, IL-31, or TSLP in skin. Taken together, this review highlights that Th2 cytokines potentiate TRP channels through diverse mechanisms under different inflammatory and pruritic conditions, and link this effect to distinct signaling cascades in AD. This review strengthens the notion that interrupting Th2-driven modulation of TRP channels will inhibit transition from acute to chronic AD, thereby aiding the development of effective therapeutics and treatment optimization.
    • An Extended Approach to Predict Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients Using the Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy C-Means.

      Ghoushchi, Saeid Jafarzadeh; Ranjbarzadeh, Ramin; Dadkhah, Amir Hussein; Pourasad, Yaghoub; Bendechache, Malika (2021-06-26)
    • mHealth Interventions to Address Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

      Khoo, Selina; Mohbin, Najihah; Ansari, Payam; Al-Kitani, Mahfoodha; Müller, Andre Matthias (2021-05-28)
      This review aimed to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the scientific literature on mobile health (mHealth) interventions to promote physical activity (PA) or reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in cancer survivors. We searched six databases from 2000 to 13 April 2020 for controlled and non-controlled trials published in any language. We conducted best evidence syntheses on controlled trials to assess the strength of the evidence. All 31 interventions included in this review measured PA outcomes, with 10 of them also evaluating SB outcomes. Most study participants were adults/older adults with various cancer types. The majority (n = 25) of studies implemented multicomponent interventions, with activity trackers being the most commonly used mHealth technology. There is strong evidence for mHealth interventions, including personal contact components, in increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA among cancer survivors. However, there is inconclusive evidence to support mHealth interventions in increasing total activity and step counts. There is inconclusive evidence on SB potentially due to the limited number of studies. mHealth interventions that include personal contact components are likely more effective in increasing PA than mHealth interventions without such components. Future research should address social factors in mHealth interventions for PA and SB in cancer survivors.
    • Brain tumor segmentation based on deep learning and an attention mechanism using MRI multi-modalities brain images.

      Ranjbarzadeh, Ramin; Bagherian Kasgari, Abbas; Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, Saeid; Anari, Shokofeh; Naseri, Maryam; Bendechache, Malika (2021-05-25)
    • The role of infiltrating lymphocytes in the neo-adjuvant treatment of women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

      Eustace, A J; Madden, S F; Fay, J; Collins, D M; Kay, E W; Sheehan, K M; Furney, S; Moran, B; Fagan, A; Morris, P G; et al. (2021-05-13)
      In our sample cohort (n = 66), patients who achieved a pCR at surgery, post-chemotherapy, had significantly higher counts of TILs (p = 0.05) but not SLs (p = 0.08) in their pre-treatment tumour samples. Patients who achieved a subsequent pCR after completing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy had significantly higher SLs (p = 9.09 × 10-3) but not TILs (p = 0.1) in their 'On-treatment' tumour biopsies. In a small cohort of samples (n = 16), infiltrating lymphocyte counts increased after 1 cycle of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy only in those tumours of patients who did not achieve a subsequent pCR. Finally, reduced CD3 + (p = 0.04, rho = 0.60) and CD4 + (p = 0.01, rho = 0.72) T-cell counts in 'On-treatment' biopsies were associated with decreased residual tumour content post-1 cycle of treatment; the latter being significantly associated with increased likelihood of subsequent pCR (p < 0.01).
    • Pulmonary hypertension and home-based (PHAHB) exercise intervention: protocol for a feasibility study.

      McCormack, Ciara; Kehoe, Brona; Hardcastle, Sarah J; McCaffrey, Noel; McCarren, Andrew; Gaine, Sean; McCullagh, Brian; Moyna, Niall (2021-05-10)
    • Students' basic needs and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: A two-country study of basic psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic learning motivation, positive emotion and the moderating role of self-regulated learning.

      Holzer, Julia; Lüftenegger, Marko; Käser, Udo; Korlat, Selma; Pelikan, Elisabeth; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Spiel, Christiane; Wachs, Sebastian; Schober, Barbara (2021-05-03)
    • Efficacy of Phytocannabinoids in Epilepsy Treatment: Novel Approaches and Recent Advances.

      Farrelly, Aaron M; Vlachou, Styliani; Grintzalis, Konstantinos (2021-04-10)
      Epilepsy is a neurological disorder mainly characterised by recurrent seizures that affect the entire population diagnosed with the condition. Currently, there is no cure for the disease and a significant proportion of patients have been deemed to have treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE). A patient is deemed to have TRE if two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) fail to bring about seizure remission. This inefficacy of traditional AEDs, coupled with their undesirable side effect profile, has led to researchers considering alternative forms of treatment. Phytocannabinoids have long served as therapeutics with delta-9-THC (Δ9-THC) receiving extensive focus to determine its therapeutic potential. This focus on Δ9-THC has been to the detriment of analysing the plethora of other phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The overall aim of this review is to explore other novel phytocannabinoids and their place in epilepsy treatment. The current review intends to achieve this aim via an exploration of the molecular targets underlying the anticonvulsant capabilities of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidavarin (CBDV), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG). Further, this review will provide an exploration of current pre-clinical and clinical data as it relates to the aforementioned phytocannabinoids and the treatment of epilepsy symptoms. With specific reference to epilepsy in young adult and adolescent populations, the exploration of CBD, CBDV, Δ9-THCV and CBG in both preclinical and clinical environments can guide future research and aid in the further understanding of the role of phytocannabinoids in epilepsy treatment. Currently, much more research is warranted in this area to be conclusive.
    • Factors influencing physical activity in adults with cystic fibrosis.

      Hurley, Nicola; Moyna, Niall M; Kehoe, Bróna; McCaffrey, Noel; Redmond, Karen; Hardcastle, Sarah J (2021-04-02)
    • Understanding disadvantaged adolescents' perception of health literacy through a systematic development of peer vignettes.

      Goss, Hannah R; McDermott, Clare; Hickey, Laura; Issartel, Johann; Meegan, Sarah; Morrissey, Janis; Murrin, Celine; Peers, Cameron; Smith, Craig; Spillane, Ailbhe; et al. (2021-03-25)
    • How Are Consensual, Non-Consensual, and Pressured Sexting Linked to Depression and Self-Harm? The Moderating Effects of Demographic Variables.

      Wachs, Sebastian; Wright, Michelle F; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Döring, Nicola (2021-03-05)
      Sexting among adolescents has triggered controversial debates among scholars and the general public. However, questions regarding the associations between different types of sexting, namely consensual, non-consensual, and pressured sexting, depressive symptoms, and non-suicidal self-harm remain. In addition, little attention has been given to whether demographic variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, disability, sexual minority) might influence these associations. To fill these gaps in the literature, the present study was conducted. Participants were 2506 adolescents (ages 13-16 years old; Mage = 15.17; SDage = 0.89) from eight high schools located in the suburbs of a large Midwestern city in the United States. Adolescents self-identified as female (50%), Caucasian (57%), approximately 15% reported that they had a disability they received school accommodation for, and 18% self-identified as a sexual minority. They completed self-report questionnaires on their sexting behaviors, depressive symptoms, and non-suicidal self-harm. Findings revealed that non-consensual and pressured sexting were positively related to depressive symptoms and non-suicidal self-harm, whereas consensual sexting was unrelated to these outcomes. Boys engaged in more non-consensual sexting compared with girls, girls were more pressured to send sexts compared with boys, and sexual minority adolescents reported greater consensual sexting compared with non-sexual minority adolescents. Moderating effects revealed that girls, non-minority adolescents, and non-sexual minority adolescents experienced greater depressive symptoms and non-suicidal self-harm when they experienced pressured sexting. These findings underscore the importance of considering various types of sexting and adolescents' demographic variables when examining the negative outcomes of sexting. Disentangling the relationships among different types of sexting, depressive symptoms, and self-harm aids in the development of evidence-based recommendations for sexting harm prevention and sexual education programs.
    • The calcium binding protein S100β marks hedgehog-responsive resident vascular stem cells within vascular lesions.

      Di Luca, Mariana; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Burtenshaw, Denise; Liu, Weimin; Helt, Jay-Christian; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Corcoran, Eoin; Gusti, Yusof; Sheridan, Daniel; Harman, Susan; et al. (2021-03-01)
    • Health Literacy in Schools? A Systematic Review of Health-Related Interventions Aimed at Disadvantaged Adolescents.

      Smith, Craig; Goss, Hannah; Issartel, Johann; Belton, Sarahjane (2021-02-25)
      Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are at greater risk of adopting unhealthy behaviours and developing chronic diseases. Adolescence has been identified as a crucial life stage to develop lifelong healthy behaviours, with schools often suggested as the ideal environment to foster healthy habits. Health literacy (HL) provides a possible solution to promote such healthy behaviours. The aim of this study was to review school-based HL-related interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents and to identify effective intervention strategies for this population. Searches were performed in six databases. Inclusion criteria included age: 12-16; the implementation of a school-based intervention related to HL aimed at socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; an intervention focused on: physical activity (PA), diet, mental health, substance abuse or sleep. Forty-one articles were included, with the majority focusing on PA and diet (n = 13), PA (n = 9) or mental health (n = 7). Few interventions focused solely on substance abuse (n = 2) or sleep (n = 1), and none targeted or assessed HL as an outcome measure. There was huge heterogeneity in study design, outcomes measures and effectiveness reported. Effective intervention strategies were identified that can be used to guide future interventions, including practical learning activities, peer support and approaches targeting the school environment, the parents or that link the intervention to the community.
    • Evaluation of the Use of Single- and Multi-Magnification Convolutional Neural Networks for the Determination and Quantitation of Lesions in Nonclinical Pathology Studies.

      Kuklyte, Jogile; Fitzgerald, Jenny; Nelissen, Sophie; Wei, Haolin; Whelan, Aoife; Power, Adam; Ahmad, Ajaz; Miarka, Martyna; Gregson, Mark; Maxwell, Michael; et al. (2021-02-23)
    • Research Strategies for Low-Survival Cancers.

      Conway, Caroline; Collins, Denis M; McCann, Amanda; Dean, Kellie (2021-01-30)
    • Formative Evaluation of a Home-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Adolescent Girls-The HERizon Project: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

      Cowley, Emma S; Watson, Paula M; Foweather, Lawrence; Belton, Sarahjane; Mansfield, Chiara; Whitcomb-Khan, Gabriella; Cacciatore, Isabella; Thompson, Andrew; Thijssen, Dick; Wagenmakers, Anton J M (2021-01-22)
      A total of 42 female participants, aged 13 to 16 years old (mean = 14.2, SD = 1.1), were randomly allocated to: (i) the HERizon group (n = 22) or (ii) the wait-list control group (n = 20). Participants in the six-week HERizon group were asked to complete three PA sessions each week and engage in weekly behaviour change support video calls. The primary outcome measure was self-reported habitual PA. Secondary outcomes measures included cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run), muscular strength (standing long jump), muscular endurance (push up test), and psychosocial outcomes (Perceived Competence Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Self-Esteem Questionnaire, Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire). Quantitative and qualitative process evaluation data were also collected. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after the six-week intervention.