Health research produced by staff and affiliates of the University of Galway.

Recent Submissions

  • Patient-Reported Enablement After Consultation With Advanced Nurse Practitioners: A Cross-Sectional Study

    McConkey, Robert; Murphy, Louise; Kelly, Therese; Dalton, Rachel; Rooney, Geraldine; Coy, Donna; Healy, Michelle; Meeker, Melinda; O'Loughlin, Marie; Dowling, Maura (Elsevier, 2023-10)
  • Counter-narratives for the prevention of violent radicalisation: A systematic review of targeted interventions.

    Carthy, Sarah; Doody, Colm; Cox, Katie; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran (2020-08-12)
    In the field of terrorism research, the violent radicalisation of individuals towards perpetrating acts of terror has been the subject of academic enquiry for some time. One core focus by social scientists has been the role of narratives in this process. Narratives have the ability to present a socially constructed version of reality which serves the interest of the narrator(s). In the context of terrorism, by depicting violence as a viable antidote to individual vulnerabilities, the narratives purported for propagandistic purposes have the potential to thwart perceptions of instrumentality (a key characteristic of violent radicalisation). In order to prevent this from happening, researchers and counter-terrorism practitioners have increasingly sought to explore the potential for counter-narratives; targeted interventions that challenge the rationalisation(s) of violence purported in dominant narratives which, in turn, reconstructs the story. However, there is overwhelming consensus in both government and academic spheres that the concept of the counter-narrative is underdeveloped and, to date, there has been no synthesis of its effectiveness at targeting violent radicalisation-related outcomes.
  • Defining palliative wound care: A scoping review by European Association for Palliative Care wound care taskforce.

    Sezgin, Duygu; Geraghty, Jemell; Graham, Tanya; Blomberg, Karin; Charnley, Karen; Dobbs, Sharon; McElvaney, Aideen; Probst, Sebastian; Beeckman, Dimitri; Grocott, Patricia; et al. (2023-07-19)
  • Hyperbaric Oxygen as an Adjunct in the Treatment of Venous Ulcers: A Systematic Review.

    Keohane, Colum; westby, daniel; Nolan, Fiona; Twyford, Mark; Tawfick, Wael; Walsh, Stewart (2023-03-08)
  • Protocol Development for a Qualitative Methodological Study Within a Trial (Qual-SWAT): The KARMA-Dep-2 Trial.

    McCaffrey, John; Hunter, Andrew (2023-05-10)
    Background: Despite methodological improvements in clinical trial design and conduct more generally, methodological limitations persist in trials concerning mental health care. A qualitative Study Within A Trial (Qual-SWAT), embedded in the KARMA-Dep-2 host trial, will be undertaken to explore and gain an understanding of two methodological questions in randomised trials specific to mental health care: (1) what are the key barriers and enablers of participation in randomised trials in mental health; and (2) how can randomised trials become part of routine mental health care. These issues will be examined from patient-participant and clinician- / researcher-participant perspectives, in alignment with PRioRiTy research themes. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design will be used. Data will be collected via one-to-one semi-structured interviews, conducted via Microsoft Teams. The interview data will be analysed using Braun and Clarke's Thematic Analysis approach. One-to-one interviews will be conducted with three participant groups ( N = 60): 1) host trial patient-participants ( n = 20); 2) eligible host trial patient-participants who refused enrolment in the host trial ( n = 20); and 3) clinician- / researcher-participants who are associated with work on the host trial ( n = 20). Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval has been granted by St. Patrick's Mental Health Services Research Ethics Committee, Ireland (Ref: Protocol 09/20). When the study is completed, a report will be prepared and submitted to the Health Research Board (HRB). Findings will be shared with the host trial team and study participants and submitted for publication. Host trial registration: ( NCT04939649 ); EudraCT ( 2019-003109-92). Official title: Ketamine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Major Depression - A Randomised Controlled Trial: [KARMA-Dep (2)].
  • The Need for Standardizing Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Care of Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic in Gallbladder Disease.

    Gillespie, Paddy; Bjourson, Anthony J; Doherty, Gerard; Manktelow, Matthew; Watterson, Steven; Skelly, Brendan (2022-03-05)
  • The Need for Standardizing Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Care of Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic in Gallbladder Disease.

    Skelly, Brendan; Gillespie, Paddy; Bjourson, Anthony J; Doherty, Gerard; Manktelow, Matthew; Watterson, Steven (2022-03-05)
  • Sex Differences in a Rat Model of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain and Associated Levels of Endogenous Cannabinoid Ligands.

    Boullon, Laura; Finn, David; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro (2021-06-04)
    Chronic neuropathic pain is a major unmet clinical need affecting 10% of the world population, the majority of whom suffer from co-morbid mood disorders. Sex differences have been reported in pain prevalence, perception and response to analgesics. However, sexual dimorphism in chronic neuropathic pain and the associated neurobiology, are still poorly understood. The lack of efficacy and the adverse effects associated with current pharmacological treatments, further underline the need for new therapeutic targets. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid signalling system which regulates a large number of physiological processes, including pain. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual dimorphism in pain-, anxiety- and depression-related behaviours, and concomitant alterations in supraspinal and spinal endocannabinoid levels in the spared nerve injury (SNI) animal model of peripheral neuropathic pain. Sham or SNI surgery was performed in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mechanical and cold allodynia was tested weekly using von Frey and acetone drop tests, respectively. Development of depression-related behaviours was analysed using sucrose splash and sucrose preference tests. Locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviours were assessed with open field and elevated plus maze tests. Levels of endocannabinoid ligands and related N-acylethanolamines in supraspinal regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathway, and spinal cord, were analysed 42 days post-surgery. SNI surgery induced allodynia in rats of both sexes. Female-SNI rats exhibited earlier onset and greater sensitivity to cold and mechanical allodynia than their male counterparts. In male rats, SNI induced a significant reduction of rearing, compared to sham controls. Trends for depressive-like behaviours in females and for anxiety-like behaviours in males were observed after SNI surgery but did not reach statistical significance. No concomitant alterations in levels of endogenous cannabinoid ligands and related N-acylethanolamines were observed in the regions analysed. Our results demonstrate differential development of SNI-induced nociceptive behaviour between male and female rats suggesting important sexually dimorphic modifications in pain pathways. SNI had no effect on depression- or anxiety-related behaviours in animals of either sex, or on levels of endocannabinoid ligands and related N-acylethanolamines across the regions involved in the descending modulation of nociception at the time points investigated.
  • GMP-Compliant Production of Autologous Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells in the NANT 001 Closed Automated Bioreactor.

    Cattaruzzi, Giacomo; Vitrani, Francesco; Mazzarol, Flavia; Mauro, Prisca; Sfiligoj, Antonio; Curcio, Francesco; Jones, Deirdre M; McInerney, Veronica; Krawczyk, Janusz; Kelly, Jack; et al. (2022-03-09)
  • Editorial: The Psychological and Physiological Benefits of the Arts.

    Karkou, Vicky or Vassiliki; Sajnani, Nisha; Orkibi, Hod; Groarke, Jenny; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Panero, Maria Eugenia; Drake, Jennifer; Jola, Corinne; Baker, Felicity (2022-03-08)
  • MicroCT Can Characterize Clots Retrieved With Mechanical Thrombectomy From Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients-A Preliminary Report.

    Dumitriu LaGrange, Daniela; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Berberat, Jatta; Luthman, Siri; Doyle, Karen M; Brina, Olivier; Reymond, Philippe; Platon, Alexandra; Muster, Michel; Machi, Paolo; et al. (2022-03-07)
  • d-Serine controls epidermal vesicle release via NMDA receptor, allowing tissue migration during the metamorphosis of the chordate .

    Hozumi, Akiko; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Mayuko; Shiraishi, Akira; Horie, Takeo; Mori, Hisashi; Sasakura, Yasunori; Krasovec, Gabriel; Obita, Takayuki; Satake, Honoo (2022-03-11)
    d-Serine, a free amino acid synthesized by serine racemase, is a coagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). d-Serine in the mammalian central nervous system modulates glutamatergic transmission. Functions of d-serine in mammalian peripheral tissues such as skin have also been described. However, d-serine's functions in nonmammals are unclear. Here, we characterized d-serine-dependent vesicle release from the epidermis during metamorphosis of the tunicate Ciona. d-Serine leads to the formation of a pocket that facilitates the arrival of migrating tissue during tail regression. NMDAR is the receptor of d-serine in the formation of the epidermal pocket. The epidermal pocket is formed by the release of epidermal vesicles' content mediated by d-serine/NMDAR. This mechanism is similar to observations of keratinocyte vesicle exocytosis in mammalian skin. Our findings provide a better understanding of the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis in animals and contribute to further evolutionary perspectives of d-amino acid function among metazoans.
  • MicroCT Can Characterize Clots Retrieved With Mechanical Thrombectomy From Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients-A Preliminary Report.

    Dumitriu LaGrange, Daniela; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Wanke, Isabel; Berberat, Jatta; Luthman, Siri; Brina, Olivier; Reymond, Philippe; Platon, Alexandra; Muster, Michel; Machi, Paolo; et al. (2022-03-07)
  • Scorpion Species with Smaller Body Sizes and Narrower Chelae Have the Highest Venom Potency.

    Healy, Kevin; Forde, Alannah; Jacobsen, Adam; Dugon, Michel (2022-03-17)
    Scorpionism is a global health concern, with an estimation of over one million annual envenomation cases. Despite this, little is known regarding the drivers of scorpion venom potency. One widely held view is that smaller scorpions with less-developed chelae possess the most potent venoms. While this perception is often used as a guide for medical intervention, it has yet to be tested in a formal comparative framework. Here, we use a phylogenetic comparative analysis of 36 scorpion species to test whether scorpion venom potency, as measured using LD50, is related to scorpion body size and morphology. We found a positive relationship between LD50 and scorpion total length, supporting the perception that smaller scorpions possess more potent venoms. We also found that, independent of body size, scorpion species with long narrow chelae have higher venom potencies compared to species with more robust chelae. These results not only support the general perception of scorpion morphology and potency, but also the presence of an ecology trade-off with scorpions either selected for well-developed chelae or more potent venoms. Testing the patterns of venom variations in scorpions aids both our ecological understanding and our ability to address the global health burden of scorpionism.
  • A systematic review of the outcomes reported in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection clinical trials.

    Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin; Smyth, Andrew; Healy, Patricia; Moore, Michael; Little, Paul; Devane, Declan; Duane, Sinead; Beecher, Claire; Vellinga, Akke (2022-03-22)
  • Obesity and brain structure in schizophrenia - ENIGMA study in 3021 individuals.

    McWhinney, Sean R; Brosch, Katharina; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crossley, Nicolas A; Dietze, Lorielle M F; Du Plessis, Stefan; Emsley, Robin; Furstova, Petra; Glahn, David C; Gonzalez-Valderrama, Alfonso; et al. (2022-06-14)
  • Implemented machine learning tools to inform decision-making for patient care in hospital settings: a scoping review.

    Parker, Amanda; Harris, Charmalee; Fennelly, Orna; Thomas, Sonia M; Ghassemi, Marco; McGowan, Jessie; Straus, Sharon E; Tricco, Andrea; Paprica, P. Alison; Hezam, Areej; et al. (2023-02-07)

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