• An investigation into the factors affecting investigator-initiated trial start-up in Ireland.

      Leddy, Lauren; Sukumar, Prasanth; O'Sullivan, Lydia; Keane, Fionnuala; Devane, Declan; Doran, Peter (2020-11-23)
    • Rare Disease Research Partnership (RAinDRoP): a collaborative approach to identify research priorities for rare diseases in Ireland.

      Somanadhan, Suja; Nicholson, Emma; Dorris, Emma; Brinkley, Aoife; Kennan, Avril; Treacy, Eileen; Atif, Awan; Ennis, Sean; McGrath, Vicky; Mitchell, Derick; et al. (2020-11-11)
      Background: Rare diseases are individually rare, but collectively these conditions are common. Research on rare diseases are currently focused on disease-specific needs rather than a life-course perspective. The Rare Disease Research Partnership (RAinDRoP) was established in 2018 to bring together a wide variety of diverse voices in the rare disease community in Ireland and form a research partnership. Methods: A participatory multiple phase approach was used to identify research priorities for rare diseases. The research process involved three main phases: Phase I, Public Consultation Survey(PCS); Phase II, Research Prioritisation Workshop (RPW); Phase III, Public Prioritisation Ranking Survey (PRS). The time frame for the entire study was from November 2018 to June 2019. Results: In total, 240 individuals completed the phase I, of which only 96 survey participants provided information on their background,  32% (n=31) self-identified as a person living with a rare disease(s). One thousand and fifteen statements were collected, which reflected issues and shared challenges in rare diseases. MSExcel was used to gain frequencies and percentages. Phase II was focused on three main themes (1) Route to Diagnosis (2) Living with Rare Disease (3) Integrated and Palliative Care. 42 participants engaged at each workshop. Seventy-five individuals completed the phase III prioritisation ranking survey and ranked the top 15 research priorities.  The top five priorities were (1)Support at the time of diagnosis, (2) Diagnostic test for rare diseases (3)Education and training (4) Patient voice (5) Data sharing and integration of services for rare diseases. Conclusions: The research priorities identified here for rare diseases were developed jointly in collaboration with patients, families, healthcare professionals and policymakers. So, we encourage researchers, funding bodies and other stakeholders to use this priority list as a guiding document for future research work to improve the health and lives of people living with rare diseases.
    • Early experiences of radiographers in Ireland during the COVID-19 crisis.

      Foley, Shane J; O'Loughlin, Anne; Creedon, Jill (2020-09-25)
    • Feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a theory-driven group-based complex intervention versus usual physiotherapy to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS).

      Hurley, Deirdre A; Jeffares, Isabelle; Hall, Amanda M; Keogh, Alison; Toomey, Elaine; McArdle, Danielle; McDonough, Suzanne M; Guerin, Suzanne; Segurado, Ricardo; Matthews, James; et al. (2020-09-23)
    • Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 Public Health Stages on Paediatric Emergency Attendance.

      McDonnell, Thérèse; Nicholson, Emma; Conlon, Ciara; Barrett, Michael; Cummins, Fergal; Hensey, Conor; McAuliffe, Eilish (2020-09-15)
    • New Ways of Working? A Rapid Exploration of Emerging Evidence Regarding the Care of Older People during COVID19

      Ní Shé, Éidín; O'Donnell, Deirdre; O'Shea, Marie; Stokes, Diarmuid; University College Dublin (MDPI, 2020-09-04)
    • Children's unscheduled primary and emergency care in Ireland: a multimethod approach to understanding decision making, trends, outcomes and parental perspectives (CUPID): project protocol.

      McAuliffe, Eilish; Hamza, Moayed; McDonnell, Thérèse; Nicholson, Emma; De Brún, Aoife; Barrett, Michael; Brunsdon, Christopher; Bury, Gerard; Collins, Claire; Deasy, Conor; et al. (2020-08-13)
    • Health inequities in unscheduled healthcare for children with intellectual disabilities in Ireland: a study protocol.

      Nicholson, Emma; Doherty, Edel; Somanadhan, Suja; Guerin, Suzanne; Schreiber, James; Bury, Gerard; Kroll, Thilo; Raley, Meredith; McAuliffe, Eilish; Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, Education and Innovation in Health Systems (IRIS), University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. (2020-07-16)
      Background: Health inequities for children with intellectual disabilities  are prevalent within different health systems, and children with intellectual disabilites  have shorter life expectancies than the general population, higher mortality rates before the age of 17 and have a greater risk of potentially preventable hospitalisations. A health systems approach to research in this area provides a useful means through which research can inform policy and practice to ensure people with intellectual disabilities receive equitable healthcare; however, there is a paucity of evidence regarding how to address differences that have been described in the literature to date. The overall aim of this research is to establish the extent of health inequities for children with intellectual disabilities  in Ireland compared to children without intellectual disabilities with respect to their utilisation of primary care and rates of hospitalisation, and to gain a better understanding of what influences utilisation of primary care and emergency department services in this population. Methods and analysis: The design of this research adopts a multi-methods approach: statistical analysis of health data to determine the extent of health inequities in relation to healthcare utilisation; discrete choice experiments to explore General Practitioners' decision making and parental preferences for optimal care; and concept mapping to develop consensus between stakeholders on how to address current healthcare inequities. Discussion: By applying a systems lens to the issue of health inequities for children with intellectual disabilities, the research hopes to gain a thorough understanding of the varying components that can contribute to the maintenance of such healthcare inequities. A key output from the research will be a set of feasible solutions and interventions that can address health inequities for this population.
    • A Personalized Physical Activity Coaching App for Breast Cancer Survivors: Design Process and Early Prototype Testing.

      Monteiro-Guerra, Francisco; Signorelli, Gabriel Ruiz; Tadas, Shreya; Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Rivera Romero, Octavio; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Caulfield, Brian (2020-07-15)
    • Epigenetic homogeneity in histone methylation underlies sperm programming for embryonic transcription.

      Oikawa, Mami; Simeone, Angela; Hormanseder, Eva; Teperek, Marta; Gaggioli, Vincent; O'Doherty, Alan; Falk, Emma; Sporniak, Matthieu; D'Santos, Clive; Franklin, Valar Nila Roamio; et al. (2020-07-13)
    • Toxicity of TiO Nanoparticles: Validation of Alternative Models.

      Leroux, Mélanie M; Doumandji, Zahra; Chézeau, Laetitia; Gaté, Laurent; Nahle, Sara; Hocquel, Romain; Zhernovkov, Vadim; Migot, Sylvie; Ghanbaja, Jafar; Bonnet, Céline; et al. (2020-07-09)
      There are many studies concerning titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) toxicity. Nevertheless, there are few publications comparing in vitro and in vivo exposure, and even less comparing air-liquid interface exposure (ALI) with other in vitro and in vivo exposures. The identification and validation of common markers under different exposure conditions are relevant for the development of smart and quick nanotoxicity tests. In this work, cell viability was assessed in vitro by WST-1 and LDH assays after the exposure of NR8383 cells to TiO2 NP sample. To evaluate in vitro gene expression profile, NR8383 cells were exposed to TiO2 NP during 4 h at 3 cm2 of TiO2 NP/cm2 of cells or 19 μg/mL, in two settings-submerged cultures and ALI. For the in vivo study, Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to a nanostructured aerosol at a concentration of 10 mg/m3, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. This was followed immediately by gene expression analysis. The results showed a low cytotoxic potential of TiO2 NP on NR8383 cells. Despite the absence of toxicity at the doses studied, the different exposures to TiO2 NP induce 18 common differentially expressed genes (DEG) which are involved in mitosis regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis and inflammation transport of membrane proteins. Among these genes, we noticed the upregulation of Ccl4, Osm, Ccl7 and Bcl3 genes which could be suggested as early response biomarkers after exposure to TiO2 NP. On the other hand, the comparison of the three models helped us to validate the alternative ones, namely submerged and ALI approaches.
    • Tailoring Nanoparticle-Biofilm Interactions to Increase the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Agents Against .

      Fulaz, Stephanie; Devlin, Henry; Vitale, Stefania; Quinn, Laura; O'Gara, James P; Casey, Eoin (2020-07-07)
      Considering the timeline required for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs, increased attention should be given to repurposing old drugs and improving antimicrobial efficacy, particularly for chronic infections associated with biofilms. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are common causes of biofilm-associated infections but produce different biofilm matrices. MSSA biofilm cells are typically embedded in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix, whereas MRSA biofilms comprise predominantly of surface proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to enhance the delivery of antimicrobial agents into biofilms. However, the mechanisms which influence the interactions between NPs and the biofilm matrix are not yet fully understood.
    • Associations between the Home Environment, Feeding Practices and Children's Intakes of Fruit, Vegetables and Confectionary/Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

      Bassul, Carolina; A Corish, Clare; M Kearney, John (2020-07-05)
      Within the home environment, parents influence their children's dietary intakes through their parenting and dietary practices, and the foods they make available/accessible. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the associations between home environmental characteristics and children's dietary intakes. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged three-five years and their parents participated in the study. Home environmental characteristics, including parental control feeding practices, were explored using validated and standardized questionnaires such as the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), the Physical and Nutritional Home Environment Inventory (PNHEI) and the Healthy Home Survey (HHS). Parent and child food consumption was also measured. Pressure to eat from parents was associated with lower fruit intake in children (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96, p = 0.032). Greater variety of fruit available in the home increased the likelihood of fruit consumption in children (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.005). Watching television for ≥1 h per day was associated with a decreased probability of children eating vegetables daily (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003) and doubled their likelihood of consuming confectionary/sugar-sweetened beverages more than once weekly (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.06-4.38, p = 0.034). Children whose parents had lower vegetable consumption were 59% less likely to eat vegetables daily. This study demonstrates that modifiable home environmental characteristics are significantly associated with children's dietary intakes.
    • Ethical issues in intervention studies on the prevention and management of diabetes and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa.

      Shayo, Elizabeth; Van Hout, Marie Claire; Birungi, Josephine; Garrib, Anupam; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nyrienda, Moffat J; Namakoola, Ivan; Okebe, Joseph; Ramaiya, Kaushik; et al. (2020-07)
    • A Systematic Review Establishing the Current State-of-the-Art, the Limitations, and the DESIRED Checklist in Studies of Direct Neural Interfacing With Robotic Gait Devices in Stroke Rehabilitation.

      Lennon, Olive; Tonellato, Michele; Del Felice, Alessandra; Di Marco, Roberto; Fingleton, Caitriona; Korik, Attila; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Molteni, Franco; Guger, Christoph; Otner, Rupert; et al. (2020-06-30)
      Background: Stroke is a disease with a high associated disability burden. Robotic-assisted gait training offers an opportunity for the practice intensity levels associated with good functional walking outcomes in this population. Neural interfacing technology, electroencephalography (EEG), or electromyography (EMG) can offer new strategies for robotic gait re-education after a stroke by promoting more active engagement in movement intent and/or neurophysiological feedback. Objectives: This study identifies the current state-of-the-art and the limitations in direct neural interfacing with robotic gait devices in stroke rehabilitation. Methods: A pre-registered systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of stroke and robotic gait training and neural biosignals (EMG and/or EEG) and was not limited by study type. Results: From a total of 8,899 papers identified, 13 articles were considered for the final selection. Only five of the 13 studies received a strong or moderate quality rating as a clinical study. Three studies recorded EEG activity during robotic gait, two of which used EEG for BCI purposes. While demonstrating utility for decoding kinematic and EMG-related gait data, no EEG study has been identified to close the loop between robot and human. Twelve of the studies recorded EMG activity during or after robotic walking, primarily as an outcome measure. One study used multisource information fusion from EMG, joint angle, and force to modify robotic commands in real time, with higher error rates observed during active movement. A novel study identified used EMG data during robotic gait to derive the optimal, individualized robot-driven step trajectory. Conclusions: Wide heterogeneity in the reporting and the purpose of neurobiosignal use during robotic gait training after a stroke exists. Neural interfacing with robotic gait after a stroke demonstrates promise as a future field of study. However, as a nascent area, direct neural interfacing with robotic gait after a stroke would benefit from a more standardized protocol for biosignal collection and processing and for robotic deployment. Appropriate reporting for clinical studies of this nature is also required with respect to the study type and the participants' characteristics.
    • Establishing the efficacy of interventions to improve health literacy and health behaviours: a systematic review.

      Walters, Ronie; Leslie, Stephen J; Polson, Rob; Cusack, Tara; Gorely, Trish (2020-06-30)
    • Late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection is linked to higher rates of epilepsy in children in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

      Michaelis, Isabel A; Nielsen, Maryke; Carty, Craig; Wolff, Markus; Sabin, Caroline A; Lambert, John S (2020-06-30)
      From 2139 children enrolled in the two sites, 53 children were diagnosed with epilepsy (2.48%). In these, the median CD4 count was 591 cells/mm3, and the mean viral load was 4.9 log copies/mL, with undetectable viral loads in only seven children (14.0%). World Health Organization (WHO) clinical HIV stage was available for 46 patients of the sample, with 3, 6, 26 and 11 children graded at stages 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Forty percent children had a history of CNS infection prior to the epilepsy diagnosis, and 55% children were reported to have school problems.