Recent Submissions

  • The Effect of Metabolic Surgery on the Complications of Diabetes: What Are the Unanswered Questions?

    Neff, Karl J; le Roux, Carel W (2020-05-29)
    t is now established that metabolic surgery (also known as bariatric surgery or obesity surgery) is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. Data from several randomized controlled trials have shown that surgery, when used as an adjunct to best medical therapy, is superior to medical therapy alone in achieving glycaemic and metabolic treatment targets in diabetes care. This has resulting in metabolic surgery being recommended as a treatment option for obesity-associated type 2 diabetes in national and international diabetes care guidelines. While the superior glycaemic effect of surgery is clear, the effect of surgery on the complications of diabetes is not fully understood. There are observational and epidemiological data that indicate a preventative effect in cohorts who do not have complications at baseline, as well as a positive effect on those with established diabetic kidney disease. However, there is a dearth of randomized controlled studies that specifically examine the effect of surgery on the complications of diabetes. Therefore, we should remain cautious in some cases, especially in those with retinopathy or neuropathy, as there is potential for deterioration of disease post-operatively. Further study is needed on this important topic. A lot is known, but there remain several unanswered questions. This article summarizes what we know about the effect of metabolic surgery on the complications of diabetes, poses some unanswered questions, and suggests how we could answer them.
  • A novel repetitive head impact exposure measurement tool differentiates player position in National Football League.

    Karton, Clara; Blaine Hoshizaki, T; Gilchrist, Michael D (2020-01-28)
    American-style football participation poses a high risk of repetitive head impact (RHI) exposure leading to acute and chronic brain injury. The complex nature of symptom expression, human predisposition, and neurological consequences of RHI limits our understanding of what constitutes as an injurious impact affecting the integrity of brain tissue. Video footage of professional football games was reviewed and documentation made of all head contact. Frequency of impact, tissue strain magnitude, and time interval between impacts was used to quantify RHI exposure, specific to player field position. Differences in exposure characteristics were found between eight different positions; where three unique profiles can be observed. Exposure profiles provide interpretation of the relationship between the traumatic event(s) and how tissue injury is manifested and expressed. This study illustrates and captures an objective measurement of RHI on the field, a critical component in guiding public policy and guidelines for managing exposure.
  • Persistent Effects of Musical Training on Mathematical Skills of Children With Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Santos, Flávia Heloísa (2020-01-10)
    Musical training (MT) is perceived as a multi-sensory program that simultaneously integrates visual, aural, oral, and kinesthetic senses. Furthermore, MT stimulates cognitive functions in a ludic way instead of tapping straight into the traditional context of school learning, including mathematics. Nevertheless, the efficacy of MT over mathematics remains understudied, especially concerning longstanding effects. For this reason, this longitudinal study explored the impact of MT on numerical cognition and abstract visual reasoning using a double-blind and quasi-experimental design. We assessed two groups of children from primary schools, namely one with developmental dyscalculia [DD; n = 22] and another comprising typically developing children [TD; n = 22], who concomitantly underwent MT. Numerical cognition measurement was carried out at four different time points: Baseline (pre-MT assessment), mid-test (after 7 weeks of MT), post-test (after 14 weeks of MT), and follow-up (10 weeks after the end of MT). Significant interactions were found between time and group for numerical cognition performance, in which the DD group showed higher scores in number comprehension, number production at mid-test, and calculation at post-test compared to baseline. A key finding was that number production, number comprehension, and calculation effects were time-resistant for the DD group since changes remained on follow-up. Moreover, no significant differences over time were found for abstract visual reasoning for both groups. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that MT appears to be a useful tool for compensatory remediation of DD.
  • Is participation in high-status culture a signal of trustworthiness?

    Aidenberger, Amelie; Rauhut, Heiko; Rössel, Jörg (2020-05-05)
  • Admission Decision-Making in Hospital Emergency Departments: The Role of the Accompanying Person.

    Rance, Susanna; Westlake, Debra; Brant, Heather; Holme, Ingrid; Endacott, Ruth; Pinkney, Jonathan; Byng, Richard (2020-06-18)
  • Development of a multivariable risk model integrating urinary cell DNA methylation and cell-free RNA data for the detection of significant prostate cancer.

    Connell, Shea P; O'Reilly, Eve; Tuzova, Alexandra; Webb, Martyn; Hurst, Rachel; Mills, Robert; Zhao, Fang; Bapat, Bharati; Cooper, Colin S; Perry, Antoinette S; et al. (2020-03-09)
  • Prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma Risk-associated Variants Within Lysyl Oxidase-like 1 in an Irish Population.

    Eivers, Sarah B; Greene, Alison G; Dervan, Edward; O'Brien, Colm; Wallace, Deborah (2020-06)
  • The Secretion of Toxins and Other Exoproteins of : Role in Virulence, Adaption, and Persistence.

    Jang, Hyein; Gopinath, Gopal R; Eshwar, Athmanya; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Nguyen, Scott; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha R; Finkelstein, Samantha B; Negrete, Flavia; Woo, JungHa; et al. (2020-02-08)
    : Cronobacter species are considered an opportunistic group of foodborne pathogenic bacteria capable of causing both intestinal and systemic human disease. This review describes common virulence themes shared among the seven Cronobacter species and describes multiple exoproteins secreted by Cronobacter, many of which are bacterial toxins that may play a role in human disease. The review will particularly concentrate on the virulence factors secreted by C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, and C. turicensis, which are the primary human pathogens of interest. It has been discovered that various species-specific virulence factors adversely affect a wide range of eukaryotic cell processes including protein synthesis, cell division, and ion secretion. Many of these factors are toxins which have been shown to also modulate the host immune response. These factors are encoded on a variety of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons; this genomic plasticity implies ongoing re-assortment of virulence factor genes which has complicated our efforts to categorize Cronobacter into sharply defined genomic pathotypes.
  • A Systematic Review of Beef Meat Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Models.

    Tesson, Vincent; Federighi, Michel; Cummins, Enda; de Oliveira Mota, Juliana; Guillou, Sandrine; Boué, Géraldine (2020-01-21)
    Each year in Europe, meat is associated with 2.3 million foodborne illnesses, with a high contribution from beef meat. Many of these illnesses are attributed to pathogenic bacterial contamination and inadequate operations leading to growth and/or insufficient inactivation occurring along the whole farm-to-fork chain. To ensure consumer health, decision-making processes in food safety rely on Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) with many applications in recent decades. The present study aims to conduct a critical analysis of beef QMRAs and to identify future challenges. A systematic approach, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, was used to collate beef QMRA models, identify steps of the farm-to-fork chain considered, and analyze inputs and outputs included as well as modelling methods. A total of 2343 articles were collected and 67 were selected. These studies focused mainly on western countries and considered Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Salmonella spp. pathogens. Future challenges were identified and included the need of whole-chain assessments, centralization of data collection processes, and improvement of model interoperability through harmonization. The present analysis can serve as a source of data and information to inform QMRA framework for beef meat and will help the scientific community and food safety authorities to identify specific monitoring and research needs.
  • Ewastools: Infinium Human Methylation BeadChip pipeline for population epigenetics integrated into Galaxy.

    Murat, Katarzyna; Grüning, Björn; Poterlowicz, Paulina Wiktoria; Westgate, Gillian; Tobin, Desmond J; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof (2020-05-13)
  • Conservation of (Magnusson 1923) Goodfellow and Alderson 1977 and rejection of (Morse 1912) Kämpfer et al. 2014.

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Scortti, Mariela; Meijer, Wim G
    A recent taxonomic study confirmed the synonymy of Rhodococcus equi (Magnusson 1923) Goodfellow and Alderson 1977 and Corynebacterium hoagii (Morse 1912) Eberson 1918. As a result, both R. equi and C. hoagii were reclassified as Rhodococcus hoagii comb. nov. in application of the principle of priority of the Prokaryotic Code. Because R. equi is a well-known animal and zoonotic human pathogen, and a bacterial name solidly established in the veterinary and medical literature, we and others argued that the nomenclatural change may cause error and confusion and be potentially perilous. We have now additionally found that the nomenclatural type of the basonym C. hoagii, ATCC 7005T, does not correspond with the original description of the species C. hoagii in the early literature. Its inclusion as the C. hoagii type on the Approved Lists 1980 results in a change in the characters of the taxon and in C. hoagii designating two different bacteria. Moreover, ATCC 7005, the only strain in circulation under the name C. hoagii, does not have a well documented history; it is unclear why it was deposited as C. hoagii and a possible mix-up with a Corynebacterium (Rhodococcus) equi isolate is a reasonable assumption. We therefore request the rejection of Rhodococcus hoagii as a nomen ambiguum, nomen dubium and nomen perplexum in addition to nomen periculosum, and conservation of the name Rhodococcus equi, according to Rules 56ab of the Code.
  • SCREENED: A Multistage Model of Thyroid Gland Function for Screening Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in a Biologically Sex-Specific Manner.

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Barbaro, Fulvio; Caiment, Florian; Coleman, Orla; Costagliola, Sabine; Conza, Giusy Di; Elviri, Lisa; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Krause, Christian; Mota, Carlos; et al. (2020-05-21)
  • A Personalized Physical Activity Coaching App for Breast Cancer Survivors: Design Process and Early Prototype Testing.

    Monteiro-Guerra, Francisco; Signorelli, Gabriel Ruiz; Tadas, Shreya; Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Rivera Romero, Octavio; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Caulfield, Brian (2020-07-15)
  • Novel Technologies for Preserving Ricotta Cheese: Effects of Ultraviolet and Near-Ultraviolet-Visible Light.

    Ricciardi, Emilio Francesco; Pedros-Garrido, Selene; Papoutsis, Kostas; Lyng, James G; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A (2020-05-05)
    Ricotta cheese is a potential growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV-C) and near-ultraviolet-visible light (NUV-vis) in microbial decontamination of ricotta artificially inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cheese samples were stored at 4 °C, and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed for 9 days. From the microbiological point of view, control samples became unacceptable after less than 5 days, whereas ricotta treated by both UV-C and NUV-vis light remained acceptable for more than 6 days. Similar effects of UV-C and NUV-vis light were also recorded in terms of sensory quality. The shelf life of the samples subjected to the treatments was thus extended by 50%, suggesting the potential application of UV-C and NUV-vis light for cheese decontamination.
  • It's No Has Bean: A Review of the Effects of White Kidney Bean Extract on Body Composition and Metabolic Health.

    Nolan, Ruth; Shannon, Oliver M; Robinson, Natassia; Joel, Abraham; Houghton, David; Malcomson, Fiona C (2020-05-13)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular GXM Conformation and Epitope Presentation: A Molecular Modelling Study.

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Casadevall, Arturo; Oscarson, Stefan (2020-06-07)
    The pathogenic encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans fungus causes serious disease in immunosuppressed hosts. The capsule, a key virulence factor, consists primarily of the glucuronoxylomannan polysaccharide (GXM) that varies in composition according to serotype. While GXM is a potential vaccine target, vaccine development has been confounded by the existence of epitopes that elicit non-protective antibodies. Although there is evidence for protective antibodies binding conformational epitopes, the secondary structure of GXM remains an unsolved problem. Here an array of molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the GXM mannan backbone is consistently extended and relatively inflexible in both C. neoformans serotypes A and D. Backbone substitution does not alter the secondary structure, but rather adds structural motifs: β DGlcA and β DXyl side chains decorate the mannan backbone in two hydrophillic fringes, with mannose-6-O-acetylation forming a hydrophobic ridge between them. This work provides mechanistic rationales for clinical observations-the importance of O-acetylation for antibody binding; the lack of binding of protective antibodies to short GXM fragments; the existence of epitopes that elicit non-protective antibodies; and the self-aggregation of GXM chains-indicating that molecular modelling can play a role in the rational design of conjugate vaccines.

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