An investigation of comorbid psychological disorders, sleep problems, gastrointestinal symptoms and epilepsy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
KeywordsAUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
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A cross-country psychiatric screening of ICD-11 disorders specifically associated with stress in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana.Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hyland, Philip; Karatzias, Thanos; Maercker, Andreas; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Lavenda, Osnat; Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Shevlin, Mark (2020-02-13)Background: The Global Forum for Health Research, with the support of the World Health Organization, highlighted the need to prioritize mental health research in Africa. The introduction of revised descriptions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Adjustment Disorder, along with new diagnoses of Complex PTSD and Prolonged Grief Disorder, in the ICD-11 creates a need for additional national-level epidemiological studies on the prevalence of stress-related disorders. Methods: The prevalence rates of these four ICD-11 stress disorders were assessed in three African countries including Nigeria (N = 1006), Kenya (N = 1018), and Ghana (N = 500). Participants completed disorder-specific measures for each disorder. Findings: Across the entire sample, the current prevalence rate of probable Adjustment Disorder was 8.4% (95% C.I. = 7.4%, 9.6%), probable PTSD was 18.6% (95% C.I. = 17.2, 20.2%), probable Complex PTSD was 15.9% (95% C.I. = 14.5%, 17.4%) and probable Prolonged Grief Disorder was 3.7% (95% C.I. = 3.1%, 4.5%). Interpretation: The results are applicable primarily to well-educated urban and suburban adults in these African countries. Results indicated that Adjustment Disorder, PTSD, and CPTSD are highly prevalent in these three African countries. There is now a pressing need to develop culturally sensitive interventions to enable recovery from these conditions.
Prevalence of item level negative symptoms in first episode psychosis diagnoses.Lyne, John; O'Donoghue, Brian; Owens, Elizabeth; Renwick, Laoise; Madigan, Kevin; Kinsella, Anthony; Clarke, Mary; Turner, Niall; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; DETECT Services, Avila House, Block 5 Blackrock Business Park, Blackrock, Co Dublin, Ireland. firstname.lastname@example.org (2012-03)The relevance of negative symptoms across the diagnostic spectrum of the psychoses remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to report on prevalence of item and subscale level negative symptoms across the first episode psychosis (FEP) diagnostic spectrum in an epidemiological sample, and to ascertain whether items and subscales were more prevalent in a schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses group compared to an 'all other psychotic diagnoses' group. We measured negative symptoms in 330 patients presenting with FEP using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and ascertained diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV. Prevalence of SANS items and subscales were tabulated across all psychotic diagnoses, and logistic regression analysis determined which items and subscales were predictive of schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses. SANS items were most prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum conditions but frequently presented in other FEP diagnoses, particularly substance induced psychotic disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. Brief psychotic disorder and bipolar disorders had low levels of negative symptoms. SANS items and subscales which significantly predicted schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, were also frequently present in some of the other psychotic diagnoses. Conclusions: SANS items have high prevalence in FEP, and while commonest in schizophrenia spectrum conditions are not restricted to this diagnostic subgroup.
Consequential differences in perspectives and practices concerning children with developmental language disorders: an integrative review.Gallagher, Aoife L; Murphy, Carol-Anne; Conway, Paul; Perry, Alison (International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 2019-04-04)