• Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations in a health board region in Ireland: room for improvement?

      Brabazon, E D; O'Farrell, A; Murray, C A; Carton, M W; Finnegan, P; Department of Public Health, Health Service Executive, Navan, Co Meath, Ireland. elaine.brabazon@hse.ie (2008-02)
      Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of these diseases in the Irish population at both a local and national level. Anecdotal evidence suggests, however, that the occurrence of notifiable infectious diseases is seriously underestimated. This study aims to assess the level of hospitalization for notifiable infectious diseases for a 6-year period in one health board region in Ireland and to assess whether or not there was any under-reporting during this period. All hospital in-patient admissions from 1997 to 2002 inclusive with a principal diagnosis relating to 'infectious and parasitic diseases' (ICD codes 001-139) of residents from a health board region in Ireland were extracted from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry System (HIPE). All notifiable infectious diseases were identified based on the 1981 Irish Infectious Disease Regulations and the data were analysed in the statistical package, JMP. These data were compared with the corresponding notification data. Analysis of the hospital in-patient admission data revealed a substantial burden associated with notifiable infectious diseases in this health board region: there were 2758 hospitalizations by 2454 residents, 17,034 bed days and 33 deaths. The statutory notification data comprises both general practitioner and hospital clinician reports of infectious disease. Therefore, only in cases where there are more hospitalizations than notifications can under-reporting be demonstrated. This occurred in nine out of 22 notifiable diseases and amounted to an additional 18% of notifications (or 572 cases) which were 'missed' due to hospital clinician under-reporting. The majority of these under-reported cases were for viral meningitis (45%), infectious mononucleosis (27%), viral hepatitis C unspecified (15%) and acute encephalitis (5.8%). This study has highlighted the extent of under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases, in a health board region in Ireland, which is a cause for concern from a surveillance point of view. If this under-reporting is similar in other health boards, then it would appear that the epidemiology of some notifiable diseases is incomplete both regionally and nationally. This under-reporting negatively impacts on the effectiveness of the notification process as a 'real-time' surveillance tool and an early warning system for outbreaks.
    • Urinary Phthalate Concentrations in Mothers and Their Children in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study.

      Health Service Executive (HSE); Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Griffin, Chris; Burke, Padraig; Mannion, Rory; Burns, Damien; Flanagan, Andrew; Kellegher, Ann; Schoeters, Greet; et al. (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2017-11-25)
      Background: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the 'Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale' (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: the concentration of phthalate metabolites were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. The median age of the children was 8 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding lifestyle and environmental conditions of the children and mothers. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in all of the samples from both children and mothers. Concentrations were significantly higher in respondents from families with lower educational attainment and in those exposed to such items as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fast food and personal care products (PCP). Conclusions: The study demonstrates that human biomonitoring for assessing exposure to phthalates can be undertaken in Ireland and that the exposure of the population is widespread. Further work will be necessary before the consequences of this exposure are understood.
    • Use of a geographic information system to map cases of measles in real-time during an outbreak in Dublin, Ireland, 2011.

      Fitzpatrick, G; Ward, M; Ennis, O; Johnson, H; Cotter, S; Carr, Mj; O Riordan, B; Waters, A; Hassan, J; Connell, J; et al. (Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 2012-12-06)
    • Use of asthma medication during pregnancy and risk of specific congenital anomalies: A European case-malformed control study.

      Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Morris, Joan; Zaupper, Louise; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Gatt, Miriam; Lelong, Nathalie; Klungsøyr, Kari; O'Mahony, Mary; et al. (Elsevier, 2015-07-25)
      Pregnant women with asthma need to take medication during pregnancy.
    • VTEC and associated information

      Health Service Executive (HSE), Department of Public Health, Midlands; Environmental Health Department, Midlands (2012-08)
    • VTEC O157 in the South East of Ireland 1996-2002

      Mahon, Marrita M.; O’Connor, M; O’Reilly, O (Department of Public Health Medicine, South Eastern Health Board, 2004)
    • Waterford alcohol-related harm profile 2019

      Goggin, Deirdre; Cullen, Louise; O'Kane, Joan; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Mason Mohan, Caroline; Health Profile Working Group; Health Service Executive (HSE) (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2019-07)
    • Westmeath alcohol-related harm profile 2019

      Goggin, Deirdre; Cullen, Louise; O'Kane, Joan; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Mason Mohan, Caroline; Health Profile Working Group; Health Service Executive (HSE) (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2019-07)
    • Wexford alcohol-related harm profile 2019

      Goggin, Deirdre; Cullen, Louise; O'Kane, Joan; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Mason Mohan, Caroline; Health Profile Working Group; Health Service Executive (HSE) (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2019-07)
    • Whoever controls the story controls the people Chios – Greece – April 2016 [Presentation]

      O'Connor, M; Health Service Executive (HSE), Department of Public Health Dublin (2016-04)
    • Wicklow alcohol-related harm profile 2019

      Goggin, Deirdre; Cullen, Louise; O'Kane, Joan; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Mason Mohan, Caroline; Health Profile Working Group; Health Service Executive (HSE) (Health Service Executive (HSE), 2019-07)
    • Working Together for Better Public Health Outcomes in the Mid-West - Report of the Director of Public Health 2018

      Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid West (Clare, Limerick, North Tipperary), Department of Public Health (Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid West (Clare, Limerick, North Tipperary), Department of Public Health, 2019-01-28)