Do high-risk infants have a poorer outcome from primary repair of coarctation? Analysis of 192 infants over 20 years.
AuthorsMcGuinness, Jonathan G
Lee, Sim Yee
Redmond, J Mark
Wood, Alfred E
AffiliationDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Our Lady's Childrens Hospital, Crumlin,, Dublin, Ireland.
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/*methods
Severity of Illness Index
MetadataShow full item record
CitationAnn Thorac Surg. 2010 Dec;90(6):2023-7.
JournalThe Annals of thoracic surgery
AbstractBACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty for infant coarctation is associated with a high recurrence rate, making operative repair the gold standard for low-risk infants. Debate exists as to whether high-risk infants might be better served with primary angioplasty. We compared the outcome in high-risk versus low-risk infants over 20 years, in a center that always used surgical repair as the primary intervention. METHODS: Of 192 infants from 1986 to 2005, 56 were considered "high-risk," defined as requiring prostaglandin infusion together with either epinephrine infusion for 24 hours preoperatively, or ventilation and milrinone infusion for 24 hours preoperatively. All high-risk patients had a period of ventricular dysfunction prior to surgery, ranging from mild to severe. Outcomes were compared using Bonferroni comparison of means or the Fischer exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Although the high-risk patients were smaller (3.3 +/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg, p < 0.01), younger (18 +/- 4 vs 57 +/- 7 days, p < 0.01), and more often required a concomitant pulmonary artery band (25% vs 15%, p = 0.05), their cross-clamp times were the same as the low-risk patients (18.9 +/- 0.9 vs 18.0 +/- 0.4 minutes, p = 0.27) and there was no difference in postoperative morbidity (7% vs 3%, p = 0.11). However, there was a trend toward higher perioperative mortality (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). When compared with the published studies of primary angioplasty in comparable high-risk infants, the mortality rate in our surgically treated high-risk group is much lower. Additionally, only 11% of our high-risk group required reintervention, with two-thirds treated successfully with a single angioplasty at 3.8 +/- 2.2 years later, far lower than recurrence rates with primary angioplasty. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that primary surgical repair of coarctation in infants who are high risk should be the primary treatment, with angioplasty reserved for recurrent coarctation.