Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.
AffiliationRegional Kidney Centre, Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital,, Health Services Executive, County Donegal, Ireland. email@example.com
MeSH*Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology/etiology/prevention & control
Kidney Failure, Chronic/*complications
MetadataShow full item record
CitationSemin Dial. 2010 May-Jun;23(3):298-305.
JournalSeminars in dialysis
AbstractTobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.