• Efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of heart failure: protocol for a systematic review incorporating unpublished clinical study reports.

      Byrne, David; Fahey, Tom; Moriarty, Frank (2021-04-01)
      Background: Sacubitril/valsartan is a first-in-class angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor used to treat heart failure. The evidence for this novel medication is largely based on one pivotal phase III trial which was stopped early due to significant clinical benefits being shown. However potential limitations in trial design have been highlighted in recent literature, necessitating a thorough review of all evidence for sacubitril/valsartan. Methods: This review will be conducted using the PRISMA reporting guidelines. Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for sacubitril/valsartan will be systematically searched for in Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Toxline and Scopus. Clinical trials registries will be searched, as will eight grey literature databases. In addition, unpublished clinical study reports (CSRs) of relevant trials will be requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Clinical Study Data Request database. Studies will be included if they involve randomising adult patients with heart failure to either sacubitril/valsartan or usual care, with either an active comparator or placebo as a control. Heart failure of any subtype or NYHA class will be included. All relevant clinical and safety outcomes will be reviewed, particularly hospitalisation due to heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Two reviewers will assess eligibility of selected studies for inclusion. Data extraction will be performed separately for trial publications, clinical trial registries and for CSRs using a piloted form. Methodological quality of included trials from published sources will be assessed separately using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2). Narrative synthesis of included studies will be conducted and, if appropriate, meta-analysis for clinical efficacy and safety outcomes. Discussion: This review will collate all available RCT data on sacubitril/valsartan including published and unpublished sources in order to obtain a more complete picture of the evidence base for sacubitril/valsartan. Registration: This protocol is registered on PROSPERO (reference CRD42020162031).
    • Factors influencing specialty choice and the effect of recall bias on findings from Irish medical graduates: a cross-sectional, longitudinal study.

      Cronin, Frances M; Clarke, Nicholas; Hendrick, Louise; Conroy, Ronan; Brugha, Ruairi; Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland. francescronin@rcsi.com. (2020-12-02)
    • Mapping the use of Group-Based Trajectory Modelling in medication adherence research: A scoping review protocol.

      Walsh, Caroline A; Mucherino, Sara; Orlando, Valentina; Bennett, Kathleen E; Menditto, Enrica; Cahir, Caitriona (2020-08-05)
    • Barriers to surgery performed by non-physician clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa-a scoping review.

      van Heemskerken, Phylisha; Broekhuizen, Henk; Gajewski, Jakub; Brugha, Ruairí; Bijlmakers, Leon (2020-07-17)
    • Illustrated State-of-the-Art Capsules of the ISTH 2020 Congress.

      Ariens, Robert; Becattini, Cecilia; Bender, Markus; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Devreese, Katrien; Ellis, Martin; Gailani, David; Ignjatovic, Vera; James, Paula D; et al. (2020-07-12)
      The 2020 Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was held virtually July 12-15, 2019, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The congress convenes annually to discuss clinical and basic topics in hemostasis and thrombosis. Each year, the program includes State of Art (SOA) lectures given by prominent scientists. Presenters are asked to create Illustrated Capsules of their talks, which are concise illustrations with minimal explanatory text. Capsules cover major themes of the presentation, and these undergo formal peer review for inclusion in this article. Owing to the shift to a virtual congress this year, organizers reduced the program size. There were 39 SOA lectures virtually presented, and 29 capsules (9 from talks omitted from the virtual congress) were both submitted and successful in peer review, and are included in this article. Topics include the roles of the hemostatic system in inflammation, infection, immunity, and cancer, platelet function and signaling, platelet function disorders, megakaryocyte biology, hemophilia including gene therapy, phenotype tests in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor, anticoagulant factor V, computational driven discovery, endothelium, clinical and basic aspects of thrombotic microangiopathies, fibrinolysis and thrombolysis, antithrombotics in pediatrics, direct oral anticoagulant management, and thrombosis and hemostasis in pregnancy. Capsule authors invite virtual congress attendees to refer to these capsules during the live presentations and participate on Twitter in discussion. Research and Practice in Haemostasis and Thrombosis will release 2 tweets from @RPTHJournal during each presentation, using #IllustratedReview, #CoagCapsule and #ISTH2020. Readers are also welcome to utilize capsules for teaching and ongoing education.
    • Effect of RaceRunning on cardiometabolic disease risk factors and functional mobility in young people with moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy: protocol for a feasibility study.

      Ryan, Jennifer; Theis, Nicola; Koufaki, Pelagia; Phillips, Shaun; Anokye, Nana; Andreopoulou, Georgia; Kennedy, Fiona; Jagadamma, Kavi C; vanSchie, Petra; Dines, Hannah; et al. (2020-07-01)
    • Lymphocyte-to-C-Reactive Protein Ratio: A Novel Predictor of Adverse Outcomes in COVID-19.

      Ullah, Waqas; Basyal, Bikash; Tariq, Shafaq; Almas, Talal; Saeed, Rehan; Roomi, Sohaib; Haq, Shujaul; Madara, John; Boigon, Margot; Haas, Donald C; et al. (2020-06-25)
      A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the association of LCR and NLR with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), dialysis, upgrade to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. Independent t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate mean differences and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with its 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively.
    • Oseltamivir for coronavirus illness: post-hoc exploratory analysis of an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial in European primary care from 2016 to 2018.

      Coenen, Samuel; van der Velden, Alike W; Cianci, Daniela; Goossens, Herman; Bongard, Emily; Saville, Benjamin R; Gobat, Nina; de Paor, Muireann; Ieven, Margareta; Verheij, Theo J; et al. (2020-06-25)
      Coronaviruses (CoV-229E, CoV-OC43, CoV-KU1 and CoV-NL63) were identified in 308 (9%) out of 3266 randomised participants in the trial; 153 of these were allocated to usual care and 155 to usual care plus oseltamivir; the primary outcome was ascertained in 136 and 147 participants, respectively. The median time to recovery was shorter in patients randomised to oseltamivir: 4 days (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6) versus 5 days (IQR 3-8; hazard ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.66; P = 0.026).
    • A systems approach delivers a functional microRNA catalog and expanded targets for seizure suppression in temporal lobe epilepsy.

      Venø, Morten T; Reschke, Cristina R; Morris, Gareth; Connolly, Niamh M C; Su, Junyi; Yan, Yan; Engel, Tobias; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Harder, Lea M; Pultz, Dennis; et al. (2020-06-24)
    • Barriers and facilitators of medicines reconciliation at transitions of care in Ireland - a qualitative study.

      Redmond, Patrick; Munir, Khalid; Alabi, Oludare; Grimes, Tamasine; Clyne, Barbara; Hughes, Carmel; Fahey, Tom (2020-06-23)
    • Top Notch Targeting Strategies in Cancer: A Detailed Overview of Recent Insights and Current Perspectives.

      Moore, Gillian; Annett, Stephanie; McClements, Lana; Robson, Tracy (2020-06-20)
    • En Bloc Resection of a Giant Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma: A Surgical Challenge.

      Almas, Talal; Ullah, Muneeb; Ehtesham, Maryam; Akbar, Absam; Khan, Muhammad Kashif (2020-06-20)
    • Repair of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Stromal Cell Administration in COVID-19 (REALIST-COVID-19): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

      Gorman, Ellen; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Hopkins, Phil; Tunnicliffe, William S; Perkins, Gavin D; Silversides, Jonathan; McGuigan, Peter; Jackson, Colette; Boyle, Roisin; McFerran, Jamie; et al. (2020-06-03)
      Intervention: Allogeneic donor CD362 enriched human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stromal cells (REALIST ORBCEL-C) supplied as sterile, single-use cryopreserved cell suspension of a fixed dose of 400 x106 cells in 40ml volume, to be diluted in Plasma-Lyte 148 to a total volume of 200mls for administration. Comparator (placebo): Plasma-Lyte 148 Solution for Infusion (200mls). The cellular product (REALIST ORBCEL-C) was developed and patented by Orbsen Therapeutics.
    • Reduced hippocampal volume in adolescents with psychotic experiences: A longitudinal population-based study.

      Calvo, Ana; Roddy, Darren W; Coughlan, Helen; Kelleher, Ian; Healy, Colm; Harley, Michelle; Clarke, Mary; Leemans, Alexander; Frodl, Thomas; O'Hanlon, Erik; et al. (2020-06-03)
    • Application of the intervention Complexity Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews within a Cochrane review: an illustrative case study.

      Cadogan, Cathal A; Rankin, Audrey; Lewin, Simon; Hughes, Carmel M (2020-06-01)
      Background: The intervention Complexity Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews (iCAT_SR) has been developed to facilitate detailed assessments of intervention complexity in systematic reviews. Worked examples of the tool's application are needed to promote its use and refinement. The aim of this case study was to apply the iCAT_SR to a subset of 20 studies included in a Cochrane review of interventions aimed at improving appropriate polypharmacy in older people. Methods: Interventions were assessed independently by two authors using the six core iCAT_SR dimensions: (1) 'Target organisational levels/categories'; (2) 'Target behaviour/actions'; (3) 'Active intervention components'; (4) 'Degree of tailoring'; (5) 'Level of skill required by intervention deliverers'; (6) 'Level of skill required by intervention recipients'. Attempts were made to apply four optional dimensions: 'Interaction between intervention components'; 'Context/setting'; 'Recipient/provider factors'; 'Nature of causal pathway'. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Disagreements were resolved by consensus discussion. The findings are presented narratively. Results: Assessments involving the core iCAT_SR dimensions showed limited consistency in intervention complexity across included studies, even when categorised according to clinical setting. Interventions were delivered across various organisational levels and categories (i.e. healthcare professionals and patients) and typically comprised multiple components. Intermediate skill levels were required by those delivering and receiving the interventions across all studies. A lack of detail in study reports precluded application of the iCAT_SR's optional dimensions. The inter-rater reliability was substantial (Cohen's Kappa = 0.75) Conclusions: This study describes the application of the iCAT_SR to studies included in a Cochrane systematic review. Future intervention studies need to ensure more detailed reporting of interventions, context and the causal pathways underlying intervention effects to allow a more holistic understanding of intervention complexity and facilitate replication in other settings. The experience gained has helped to refine the original guidance document relating to the application of iCAT_SR.
    • Nasal Bridles for Securing Nasoenteric Feeding Tubes: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Potential Complications.

      Inayat, Faisal; Ur Rahman, Asad; Almas, Talal; Zahid, Effa; Zervos, Xaralambos (2020-05-28)
    • Brugada Pattern Type 2 Diagnosis Unmasked by Aspiration Pneumonia.

      Sattar, Yasar; Ullah, Waqas; Zaidi, Syeda Ramsha; Almas, Talal; Alraies, M Chadi (2020-05-28)
    • Association of High-Potency Cannabis Use With Mental Health and Substance Use in Adolescence.

      Hines, Lindsey A; Freeman, Tom P; Gage, Suzanne H; Zammit, Stanley; Hickman, Matthew; Cannon, Mary; Munafo, Marcus; MacLeod, John; Heron, Jon (2020-05-27)