Research by authors affiliated to the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Recent Submissions

  • A protocol to evaluate the impact of embedding Public and Patient Involvement in a structured PhD program for stroke care.

    Sorensen, Jan; Hall, Patricia; Fitzgerald, Clare; Hickey, Julianne; Fahy, Martin; Osborne, Philip; Scullion, Mary; Ní Bhroin, Clíodhna; Williams, David J; Horgan, N Frances; et al. (2022-07-22)
  • Impact of changes to the delivery of opioid agonist treatment, introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, on treatment access and dropout in Ireland: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Durand, Louise; Delargy, Íde; Scully, Mike; Bourke, Margaret; Otero Vázquez, María; Boland, Fiona; Harnedy, Norma; Ebbitt, William; Keenan, Eamon; Cousins, Gráinne (2023-03-31)
  • How has medical student learning changed with the pivot to online delivery of ophthalmology in the pandemic?

    Ní Gabhann-Dromgoole, Joan; Boland, Fiona; Murphy, Conor; Doyle, Andrea; Pawlikowska, Teresa (2023-03-30)
  • Oesophageal cancer metastases: An observational study of a more aggressive approach.

    Walsh, Thomas N; Pickett , Lianne; Dunne, Mary; monaghan, orla; Grogan, Liam; Breathnach, Oscar (2022-08-30)
    Of 205 patients, 11 (5.4%) had metastases treated for cure (82% male; median age 60 years; 9 adenocarcinoma and 2 squamous cell carcinomas). All had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, followed by surgery in all but 1 case. Of the 11 patients, 4 had metastatic disease at diagnosis, of whom 3 were successfully downstaged with nCRT before definitive surgery; 2 of these 4 also developed oligometastatic recurrence and were treated with curative intent. Following definitive treatment, 7 had treatment for metachronous oligometastatic disease; 5 of whom underwent metastasectomy (adrenal × 2; lung × 2; liver × 1). The median overall survival was 10.9 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-21.0 years], which was statistically significantly longer than incomplete clinical responders undergoing surgery on the primary tumour without metastatic intervention [n = 62; median overall survival = 1.9 (95%CI: 1.1-2.7; P = 0.012]. The cumulative proportion surviving 1, 3, and 5 years was 100%, 91%, and 61%, respectively compared to 71%, 36%, and 25% for incomplete clinical responders undergoing surgery on the primary tumour who did not undergo treatment for metastatic disease.
  • Prescribing cascades in community-dwelling adults: A systematic review.

    Moriarty, Frank; SHAHID, FAIZA; Boland, Fiona; Clyne, Barbara; Dreischulte, Tobias; Doherty, Ann; Fahey, Tom; Kennelly, Sean; wallace, emma (2022-10-01)
  • Minimum accepted competency examination: test item analysis.

    Nicholson, Alf; McCrossan, Paddy; McCallion, Naomi (2022-05-25)
  • Bleeding assessment tools in the diagnosis of VWD in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of test accuracy.

    Tayiem, Sammy; Abughanimeh, Omar; Madoukh, Bader; Qureini, Aref; Di Paola, Jorge; Eikenboom, Jeroen C J; Jacobs-Pratt, Vicky; McLintock, Claire; Montgomery, Robert; Sidonio, Robert; et al. (2021-12-02)
  • Effect of COVID-19 on lipid profile parameters and its correlation with acute phase reactants: A single-center retrospective analysis.

    Ehtesham, Maryam; Laique, Talha; Ishaq, Uzma; Mehmood, Asad; Oruk, Mert; Almas, Talal; Malik, Jahanzeb; Al Subai, Abdulla; Syed Muhammad Jawad Zaidi; Hadeed, Sebastian; et al. (2022-05-26)
  • Childhood Trauma, the HPA Axis and Psychiatric Illnesses: A Targeted Literature Synthesis.

    Murphy, Felim; Sooknarine, Vitallia; Haines, Madeline; Roman, Elena; Kelly, Linda; Nasa, Anurag; Cullinane, Dearbhla; Roddy, Darren William; Raajakesary, Kesidha; Gazzaz, Areej; et al. (2022-05-06)
    Studies of early life stress (ELS) demonstrate the long-lasting effects of acute and chronic stress on developmental trajectories. Such experiences can become biologically consolidated, creating individual vulnerability to psychological and psychiatric issues later in life. The hippocampus, amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex are all important limbic structures involved in the processes that undermine mental health. Hyperarousal of the sympathetic nervous system with sustained allostatic load along the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis and its connections has been theorized as the basis for adult psychopathology following early childhood trauma. In this review we synthesize current understandings and hypotheses concerning the neurobiological link between childhood trauma, the HPA axis, and adult psychiatric illness. We examine the mechanisms at play in the brain of the developing child and discuss how adverse environmental stimuli may become biologically incorporated into the structure and function of the adult brain via a discussion of the neurosequential model of development, sensitive periods and plasticity. The HPA connections and brain areas implicated in ELS and psychopathology are also explored. In a targeted review of HPA activation in mood and psychotic disorders, cortisol is generally elevated across mood and psychotic disorders. However, in bipolar disorder and psychosis patients with previous early life stress, blunted cortisol responses are found to awakening, psychological stressors and physiological manipulation compared to patients without previous early life stress. These attenuated responses occur in bipolar and psychosis patients on a background of increased cortisol turnover. Although cortisol measures are generally raised in depression, the evidence for a different HPA activation profile in those with early life stress is inconclusive. Further research is needed to explore the stress responses commonalities between bipolar disorder and psychosis in those patients with early life stress.
  • The impact of topical agents and dressing on pH and temperature on wound healing: A systematic, narrative review.

    Moore, Zena; Derwin, Rosemarie; Strapp, Helen; Patton, Declan; AVSAR, PINAR (2021-12-20)
  • Meckel's diverticulum causing acute intestinal obstruction: A case report and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Murad, Muhammad Faisal; Abdullatif, Tala; Hadeed, Sebastian; Khan, Muhammad Omer; Alsufyani, Majid; Alzadjali, Enaam; Samy, Arjun; Oruk, Mert; Alhajri, Fatemah Saleh; Barakat, Ahmed; et al. (2022-05-07)
  • Preventing facial pressure injuries among health care staff working in diverse COVID-19 care environments.

    Rice, John; Moore, Zena; Moore, David; McEvoy, Natalie; AVSAR, PINAR; O'Connor, Professor Tom; Moda Vitoriano Budri, Aglecia; Curley, Gerard; walsh, simone; Burke, Frank; et al. (2022-02-10)
  • Treatment for Constipation-An Online Search. Readability and Quality of Online Patient Resources.

    Bresler, Richard; Gollapalli, Syama; Lynch, Noel; Martin, Sean T (2022-05-22)
    Aim: To evaluate the readability and quality of online patient information regarding treatment for constipation in the English language. Methods: By utilizing the Google © website, the keyword "treatment for chronic constipation" was searched. Each webpage was assessed by 2 authors independently for readability using both the Gunning Fog Index (GFI) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). The quality of the information produced on each individual website was assessed using the DISCERN instrument. Other parameters that were recorded included the country of origin, the organization type, and whether or not the website was issued a Health on the Net (HoN) certificate. Results: This study identified a mean GFI score of 13.2 and a mean FRES score of 48.9. This result indicates poor overall readability. A mean DISCERN score of 37.9 was produced, indicating an overall weak quality of online information on this topic. This study indicated that parameters such as website organization type and the presence or absence of HoN certification impacted the quality of the information websites on this topic. Conclusion: This study indicated a poor level of quality and readability of online information on the topic of chronic constipation treatment. Further resources should be directed towards improving website readability and quality. Patients may be advised that if they wish to access online information on this topic, websites that display HoN accreditation will likely produce higher quality information.
  • PCR vs karyotype for CVS and amniocentesis-the experience at one tertiary fetal medicine unit.

    Dalrymple, Jane; Finnegan, Catherine; Smyth, Suzanne; Smith, Orla; Flood, Karen; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Malone, Fergal D. (2021-07-20)
  • A scoping review: virtual patients for communication skills in medical undergraduates.

    Pawlikowska, Teresa; Kelly, Síle; Murphy, Paul; Smyth, Erica (2022-06-03)
  • Molecular Aspects of the Interaction with Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria of Hydrothermal Carbon Nanoparticles Associated with Bac8c Antimicrobial Peptide.

    Fenoglio, Ivana; Kokalari, Ida; BARZAN, GIULIA; Gariglio, Giacomo; Ghibaudi, Elena; Devocelle, Marc; Monopoli, Marco P.; Sacco, Alessio; Greco, Angelo; GIOVANNOZZI, ANDREA MARIO; et al. (2022-05-05)
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely studied as therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum efficacy against infections. However, their clinical use is hampered by the low in vivo bioavailability and systemic toxicity. Such limitations might be overcome by using appropriate drug delivery systems. Here, the preparation of a drug delivery system (DDS) by physical conjugation of an arginine-rich peptide and hydrothermal carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) has been explored, and its antimicrobial efficacy against Eschericia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus investigated in comparison with the unloaded carrier and the free peptide. The mechanism of interaction between CNPs and the bacteria was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and a combined dielectrophoresis-Raman spectroscopy method for real-time analysis. In view of a possible systemic administration, the effect of proteins on the stability of the DDS was investigated by using albumin as a model protein. The peptide was bounded electrostatically to the CNPs surface, establishing an equilibrium modulated by pH and albumin. The DDS exhibited antimicrobial activity toward the two bacterial strains, albeit lower as compared to the free peptide. The decrease in effectiveness toward E. coli was likely due to the rapid formation of a particle-induced extracellular matrix. The present results are relevant for the future development of hydrothermal CNPs as drug delivery agents of AMPs.
  • A Qualitative Study of Older Adults' Experiences of Embedding Physical Activity Within Their Home Care Services in Ireland.

    Warters, Austin; Swan, Lauren; Townley, Bex; Burton, Elissa; Horgan, N Frances; Cummins, Vanda; O'Sullivan, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Doyle, Frank; Jabakhanji, Samira; et al. (2022-05-19)
  • Brain tumor patients and COVID-19 vaccines: results of an international survey.

    Farrimond, Stuart; Chee, Tess; Voisin, Mathew; Oliver, Kathy; O'Halloran, Philip J; Glas, Martin; Zadeh, Gelareh (2022-05-03)

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