Research by staff affiliated to Mercy University Hospital

Recent Submissions

  • Counselling in Primary Care – A General Practitioner’s Perspective

    Rafferty, M.; Bradley, C.; 1. Mercy University Hospital 2. Department of General Practice, University College Cork (Irish Medical Journal, 2019-02)
    Counselling in Primary care (CIPC) is a new service introduced by the HSE in 2013, providing short-term counselling for medical-card holders, suffering from mild to moderate mental health problems.
  • A budget impact analysis of a clinical medication review of patients in an Irish university teaching hospital

    Kearney, Alan; Walsh, Elaine. K; Kirby, Ann; Halleran, Ciaran; Byrne, Derina; Haugh, Jennifer; Sahm, Laura. J (Global & Regional Health Technology, 2018-09)
    To measure the net benefit of a pharmacist-led medication review in acute public hospitals. To identify and measure the resources used when completing a pharmacist-led medication review, an observational study was conducted in an acute urban university teaching hospital. Health Information and Quality Authority guidelines were used to value resources used in a pharmacist-led medication review. Model inputs included demographic data, probability of adverse drug events associated with the pharmacist interventions, estimates of future discharges and cost data. The cost of a pharmacist-led medication review and savings generated from avoidance of adverse drug events were estimated and projected over a 5-year period, using hospital discharge rates taken from the hospital inpatient enquiry system and the census of population. Using the per-patient cost of a medication review, the annual cost of delivering a bi-weekly medication review is projected to vary between €6 m and €6.4 m over a 5-year period from 2017 to 2021. The per-patient net benefit of a bi-weekly medication review is €45.88. Therefore, the projected annual net benefit of a bi-weekly medication review is between €29.5 m and €31.2 m over the 5-year period of 2017 to 2021. Introducing a pharmacist-led medication review for each inpatient saves in the short and longer term. The results are consistent with previous findings. Substantial savings were estimated, regardless of variation in model parameters tested in sensitivity analysis.
  • Giant Cell Arteritis Presenting as an Ischaemic Upper Limb

    Fitzgerald, Gerald; O’Connor, Mortimer B.; Phelan, Mark J.; Mercy University Hospital, Cork (Irish Medical Journal, 2018-07)
    Aim: To present an interesting case of giant cell arteritis presenting as ischaemic upper limb. Methods Data was collected from the patient’s chart and from radiology and laboratory systems in our institution. Results: The patient had a temporal artery biopsy confirming the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. This was successfully treated with high dose steroids leading to resolution of symptoms in the arm. Conclusion: Arteritis is an important consideration to consider in patients who present with limb ischaemia as it is a reversible cause which can be treated effectively.
  • An audit of empiric antibiotic choice in the inpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia

    Delaney, F; Jackson, A (Irish Medical Journal, 2017-04)
    Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines for empiric antibiotic prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been reported to be worryingly low. We conducted a review of empiric antibiotic prescribing for sixty consecutive adult patients admitted to the Mercy University Hospital with a diagnosis of CAP. When analysed against local antimicrobial guidelines, guideline concordant empiric antibiotics were given in only 48% of cases, lower than the average rate in comparable studies. Concordance was 100% in cases where the CURB-65 pneumonia severity assessment score, on which the guidelines are based, was documented in the medical notes. The use of excessively broad spectrum and inappropriate antibiotics is a notable problem. This study supports the theory that lack of knowledge regarding pneumonia severity assessment tools and unfamiliarity with therapeutic guidelines are key barriers to guideline adherence, which remains a significant problem despite increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship programs in Ireland
  • Management of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism in primary

    McCarthy, E; Russell, A; Kearney, PM (Irish Medical Journal, 2016-01)
    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as a raised serum thyroid stimulating hormone level with normal thyroxine. Despite a prevalence of up to 9% of the adult population there is widespread uncertainty on how to manage it. The aim of this study was to assess how older adults with SCH are managed in primary care. A retrospective case-note review was carried out on patients attending Mallow Primary Healthcare Centre. This study identified patients 65 years and over meeting the criteria for SCH in one year. The prevalence of SCH in this study was calculated as 2.9%. 22.2% of patients were treated with thyroxine. 6.1% of untreated patients progressed to clinical hypothyroidism within the study period while 18.2% spontaneously reverted to normal TSH levels.
  • Chronic kidney disease and obesity in Ireland: comparison of self-reported coronary artery disease in population study with clinic attendees.

    Lannin, U; Vaughan, C; Perry, I J; Browne, G (Irish Medical Journal, 2015-02)
    Obesity is a growing issue in Ireland. The link between obesity, CKD and CAD has not previously been described in the Irish population. The prevalence of obesity and CKD was compared across 3 groups: population based estimates with self-reported CAD, population based estimates without self-reported CAD (SLAN-07) and a random selection of cardiology outpatients with CAD. The SLAN-07 is a representative survey of 1207 randomly selected participants ≥ 45 years. Validated methods measured parameters including waist circumference, blood pressure and markers of renal function specifically glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin: creatinine ratio. The Cardiology clinic surveyed a random selection of 126 participants ≥ 45 years with CAD. Similar parameters were measured using the validated methods utilised in SLAN-07 study. Prevalence of obesity and renal disease was significantly higher in both CAD groups. At population level, risk factors were modelled using logistic regression to compare odds of participants with self-reported CAD with those without. Age, hypertension, obesity, elevated waist circumference, renal disease and diabetes are significantly associated with existing CAD. Obesity and CKD are more frequent in patients with CAD. Routine evaluation is essential to facilitate more intensive management of these risk factors.
  • The Intensity of QuantiFERON TB-Gold Response does not Differentiate Active from Latent Tuberculosis

    F Khan, F; Cotter, O; Kennedy, B; Clair, J; O’Connor, B; Collins, J; Curran, D; O’Connor, T (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2013-12)
    We analyzed positive QuantiFERON (QFT) assays, performed between July 2009 and April 2011 in the Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland, which included, 94 patients with latent tuberculosis (LTBI) and 35 patients with active tuberculosis. There was no difference in the intensity of response between patients with LTBI and active tuberculosis (p=0.1589). In patients with LTBI, there were no correlations between age (p=0.353), sex (p=0.476), smoking (p=0.323), contact (p=0.612), Mantoux response (p=0.055), Irish nationality (p=0.768), previous BCG vaccination (p=0.504), WCC (p=0.187), lymphocyte count (p=0.786), neutrophil count (p=0.157) and the intensity of QFT response. Similarly in patients with active TB, there were no correlations between these variables and QFT response. The intensity of QFT response does not help to differentiate active from LTBI. The intensity of QFT response is not influenced by age, sex, smoking, remoteness of contact history, Mantoux response, nationality, CXR abnormalities, BCG vaccination and peripheral lymphocyte count.
  • COPD exacerbations: a comparison of Irish data with European data from the ERS COPD audit

    Crinion, S; Cotter, O; Kennedy, B; O’Connor, B; Curran, DR; McCormack, S; McDonnell, T J; O’Connor, TM (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2013-10)
    The European Respiratory Society COPD audit was a cross-sectional, multicentre study that analysed outcomes for COPD patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation across Europe. We present the data on patients admitted to 11 Irish hospitals that participated in the audit. Among 237 patients (123 Male), the median age was 71 years and 79 (33%) patients were current smokers. 82 (35%) patients received high-flow oxygen before admission and 43 (18%) were cared for in a dedicated respiratory ward. 54 (23%) patients required ventilatory support. Median length of stay was 7 days, 98 (41%) patients were readmitted and 211 (89%) patients were alive at the 90 day follow up point. Irish patients were more likely to receive high-flow oxygen before admission, less likely to be managed in a dedicated respiratory ward and had a higher likelihood of readmission or death within 90 days than the European average.
  • Pancreatico pleural fistula an unusual complication of chronic pancreatitis

    Ferris, H; Buckley, M (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2012-07)
  • VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.

    Nyhan, Michelle J; El Mashad, Shereen M; O'Donovan, Tracey R; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Collins, Chris; Sweeney, Paul; Rogers, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; McKenna, Sharon L; University College Cork and Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
    BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-alpha (HIF-alpha), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: The VHL gene was sequenced in 23 CCRCC patients and VHL transcript levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of pVHL's protein targets were determined by Western blotting in 17 paired patient samples. RESULTS: VHL genetic alterations were identified in 43.5% (10/23) of CCRCCs. HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and CAIX were up-regulated in 88.2% (15/17), 100% (17/17) and 88.2% (15/17) of tumors respectively and their expression is independent of VHL status. hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin expression was variable in CCRCCs and had no association with VHL genetic status. CONCLUSION: As expression of these proposed pVHL targets can be achieved independently of VHL mutation (and possibly by hypoxia alone), these data suggests that other pVHL targets may be more crucial in renal carcinogenesis.
  • B-type natriuretic peptide as predictor of heart failure in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction, single-vessel disease, and complete revascularization: follow-up study.

    Manola, Sime; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Delic Brkljacic, Diana; Pintaric, Hrvoje; Stambuk, Kresimir; Bulj, Nikola; Trbusic, Matias; Krcmar, Tomislav; Lukinac, Ljerka; Departmet of Cardiology, Sisters of Mercy University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia. (2012-01-31)
    AIM: To assess the concentration of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a predictor of heart failure in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with successful and complete revascularization. METHODS: Out of a total of 220 patients with acute STEMI admitted to the Sisters of Mercy University Hospital in the period January 1 to December 31, 2007, only patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI who had single vessel disease and were successfully revascularized were included in the study. Selected patients had no history of myocardial infarction or heart failure and a normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (> or =50%) assessed by left ventriculography at admission. Only 58 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Out of those, 6 patients refused to participate in the study, and another 5 could not be followed up, so a total of 47 patients were evaluated. Blood samples were taken for measurement of BNP levels at admission, 24 hours later, and 7 days later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcome was reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to <50% after 1 year. RESULTS: Patients who developed echocardiographic signs of reduced systolic function defined as LVEF<50% had significantly higher values of BNP (> or =80 pg/mL) at 24 hours (P=0.001) and 7 days (P=0.020) after STEMI and successful reperfusion. Patients who had BNP levels > or =80 pg/mL after 7 days were 21 times more likely to develop LVEF<50 (odds ratio, 20.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-195.2; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: BNP can be used as a predictor of reduced systolic function in patients with STEMI who underwent successful reperfusion and had normal ejection fraction at admission.
  • Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    O'Regan, Kevin; O'Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Republic of Ireland., (2012-01-31)
    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.
  • An unusual pelvic mass: bladder lymphoma.

    Alsinnawi, M; Quinlan, M; Brady, A; Khan, N; Department of Urology, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
  • Temporal structure of first-year courses and success at course exams: comparison of traditional continual and block delivery of anatomy and chemistry courses.

    Salopek, Daniela; Lovric, Jasna; Hren, Darko; Marusic, Ana; Department of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Sisters of Mercy University, Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia. (2012-01-31)
    AIM: To evaluate students' academic success at delivered in a traditional continual course, spread over the two semesters, or in alternating course blocks. METHOD: We analyzed the data on exam grades for Anatomy and Chemistry courses in the first year of the curriculum for academic year 2001/02, with the traditional continual delivery of the courses (n=253 for chemistry and n=243 for anatomy), and academic year 2003/04, with block delivery of the courses (n=255 for Chemistry and n=260 for Anatomy). Grades from the final examination were analyzed only for students who sat the exam at the first available exam term and passed the course. For the Anatomy block course, grades at 2 interim written tests and 2 parts of the final exam (practical stage exam and oral exam) in each block were analyzed for students who passed all interim tests and the final exam. RESULTS: There were no differences between two types of course delivery in the number of students passing the final examination at first attempt. There was a decrease in passing percentage for the two Anatomy block course student groups in 2003/04 (56% passing students in block 1 vs 40% in block 2, P=0.014). There was an increase in the average grades from 2001/02 to 2003/04 academic year due to an increase in Chemistry grades (F1,399=18.4, P<0.001, 2 x 2 ANOVA). There was no effect of the sequence of their delivery (F1,206=1.8, P=0.182, 2 x 2 ANOVA). There was also a significant difference in grades on interim assessments of Anatomy when it was delivered in the block format (F3,85=28.8, P<0.001, between-within subjects 2 x 4 ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The type of course delivery was not associated with significant differences in student academic success in Anatomy and Chemistry courses in the medical curriculum. Students can successfully pass these courses when they are delivered either in a continual, whole year format or in a condensed time format of a course block, regardless of the number and type of courses preceding the block course.
  • Stress in emergency departments: experiences of nurses and doctors.

    Healy, Sonya; Tyrrell, Mark; Mercy University Hospital, Cork. (2012-01-31)
    The effects of stressful incidents on emergency department (ED) staff can be profound. Witnessing aggression, violence or the death of patients, or participating in resuscitation, can be emotionally and physically demanding. Despite the frequency of these events, ED staff do not become immune to the stress they cause, and are often ill prepared and under supported to cope with them. This article reports on a study of nurses' and doctors' attitudes to, and experiences of, workplace stress in three EDs in Ireland, and offers some suggestions on how stress among ED staff can be reduced.
  • Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    Rajendran, Simon; O'Hanlon, Deirdre; Morrissey, David; O'Donovan, Tracey; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; Tangney, Mark; Cork Cancer Research Centre, Mercy University Hospital and Leslie C Quick Jnr., Laboratory, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in-depth preclinical assessment of novel therapeutics and may serve as a platform for further testing of current, novel gene delivery approaches.
  • Listeria monocytogenes as a vector for anti-cancer therapies.

    Tangney, Mark; Gahan, Cormac G M; Cork Cancer Research Centre, Mercy University Hospital, University College Cork, , Ireland. (2012-01-31)
    The intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes represents a promising therapeutic vector for the delivery of DNA, RNA or protein to cancer cells or to prime immune responses against tumour-specific antigens. A number of biological properties make L. monocytogenes a promising platform for development as a vector for either gene therapy or as an anti-cancer vaccine vector. L. monocytogenes is particularly efficient in mediating internalization into host cells. Once inside cells, the bacterium produces specific virulence factors which lyse the vaculolar membrane and allow escape into the cytoplasm. Once in the cytosol, L. monocytogenes is capable of actin-based motility and cell-to-cell spread without an extracellular phase. The cytoplasmic location of L. monocytogenes is significant as this potentiates entry of antigens into the MHC Class I antigen processing pathway leading to priming of specific CD8(+) T cell responses. The cytoplasmic location is also beneficial for the delivery of DNA (bactofection) by L. monocytogenes whilst cell-to-cell spread may facilitate access of the vector to cells throughout the tumour. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of L. monocytogenes for intracellular gene or protein delivery in vitro and in vivo, and this vector has also displayed safety and efficacy in clinical trial. Here, we review the features of the L. monocytogenes host-pathogen interaction that make this bacterium such an attractive candidate with which to induce appropriate therapeutic responses. We focus primarily upon work that has led to attenuation of the pathogen, demonstrated DNA, RNA or protein delivery to tumour cells as well as research that shows the efficacy of L. monocytogenes as a vector for tumour-specific vaccine delivery.
  • Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    O'Connor, T M; Barry, P J; Jahangir, A; Finn, C; Buckley, B M; El-Gammal, A; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland., (2012-01-31)
    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a 'mixed' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. METHODS: Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. RESULTS: Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 . venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded.
  • Targeting of breast metastases using a viral gene vector with tumour-selective transcription.

    Rajendran, Simon; Collins, Sara; van Pijkeren, Jan P; O'Hanlon, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; Tangney, Mark; Cork Cancer Research Centre, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
    BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have significant potential as gene delivery vectors for cancer gene therapy. However, broad AAV2 tissue tropism results in nonspecific gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated use of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) promoter to restrict AAV expression to tumour cells, in subcutaneous MCF-7 xenograft mouse models of breast cancer and in patient samples, using bioluminescent imaging and flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Higher transgene expression levels were observed in subcutaneous MCF-7 tumours relative to normal tissue (muscle) using the CXCR4 promoter, unlike a ubiquitously expressing Cytomegalovirus promoter construct, with preferential AAVCXCR4 expression in epithelial tumour and CXCR4-positive cells. Transgene expression following intravenously administered AAVCXCR4 in a model of liver metastasis was detected specifically in livers of tumour bearing mice. Ex vivo analysis using patient samples also demonstrated higher AAVCXCR4 expression in tumour compared with normal liver tissue. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time, the potential for systemic administration of AAV2 vector for tumour-selective gene therapy.
  • Upper gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to aortoduodenal syndrome owing to a noninflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Cahill, Kevin; Roche-Nagle, Graham; MacEneaney, Peter; McGreal, Gerald; Department of Vascular Surgery, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
    Aortoduodenal syndrome is a rare complication of an abdominal aortic aneurysm wherein the aneurysm sac obstructs the patient's duodenum. It presents with the symptoms of an upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction and requires surgical intervention to relieve it. Previously, gastric bypass surgery was advocated, but now aortic replacement is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman whose aortoduodenal syndrome was successfully managed and review the literature on this topic.

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