• Audit of thrice- versus twice-weekly ECT.

      Roche, Eric; Lope, Jasmin; Hughes, Helen; McCullagh, Niamh; Larkin, Terence; Feeney, Larkin; Cluain Mhuire Community Mental Health Service, Blackrock, County Dublin, Ireland. ectoroche@gmail.com (2012-09)
      There is a lack of knowledge regarding some basic differences between different electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment schedules.
    • Can we combine symptom scales for collaborative research projects?

      Lyne, John P; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Donoghue, Brian; DETECT Services, Avila House, Block 5 Blackrock Business Park, Co. Dublin, Ireland. johnlyne@mail.com (2012-02)
      Collaborative research projects have the potential to answer important research questions, which may otherwise require huge resources, funding, and time to complete. There are several scales for measuring psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, with the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) being among the most commonly used. High quality research efforts have used these three scales in different projects, and in order to merge study efforts, some means of combining data from these scales may be necessary. We reviewed correlations in published studies for these three scales, finding them to be highly correlated, however on comparison of the three scales there were considerable clinical differences between them. The paper discusses potential methods for combining the scales in collaborative research, including use of the recently developed standardised remission criteria for schizophrenia.
    • Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

      McWilliams, Stephen; Egan, Patrick; Jackson, Deirdre; Renwick, Laoise; Foley, Sharon; Behan, Caragh; Fitzgerald, Emma; Fetherston, Alastair; Turner, Niall; Kinsella, Anthony; et al. (2010-01)
      International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
    • Caregiver psychoeducation for schizophrenia: is gender important?

      McWilliams, Stephen; Hill, Shane; Mannion, Nora; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; DETECT Early Intervention in Psychosis Service, Research, 1 Marine Terrace, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin, Ireland. stephen.mcwilliams@sjog.ie (2007-07)
      Our findings indicate that there are gender differences in the amount and type of knowledge gained during a CPP, with female caregivers showing greater knowledge acquisition than their male counterparts in most areas. Interventions designed to assist caregivers may be improved by targeting areas of knowledge specific to each gender. Such an approach might further reduce burden and improve the outcome for their relatives affected by schizophrenia.
    • The clinical effectiveness of a brief consultation and advisory approach compared to treatment as usual in child and adolescent mental health services.

      McGarry, Joan; McNicholas, Fiona; Buckley, Hannah; Kelly, Brendan D; Atkin, Louise; Ross, Niamh; Lucena CAMHS, County Wicklow, Ireland. joan.mcgarry@sjog.ie (Sage Publications, 2008-07)
      A brief consultation and advice (BCA) approach to dealing with routine referrals was introduced into a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) over an 18-month period. This is a time-limited, client-centred and solution-focused approach to dealing with common non-complex referrals. The model proposes that all families are seen for an initial 'consultation' appointment followed by a maximum of two further appointments. A randomized controlled study compared the clinical effectiveness of BCA treatment with treatment as usual (TAU) over a 6-month period. The parents of children referred to CAMHS were eligible to participate if their child was deemed 'non-complex'. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant ethics committee. Families who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated to either the BCA or TAU group. Sixty children enrolled in the study. Both groups showed improvements on a number of variables at 3 months post treatment, but only those receiving BCA showed continued improvement at 6 months. Participants in both groups showed high levels of satisfaction with the treatment received. Participants in the TAU group expressed dissatisfaction with long waiting times and had a higher drop out rate than the BCA treatment group. During the time frame studied, the introduction of the BCA approach did not lead to a decrease in overall mean waiting time. These results and the usefulness of a BCA model are discussed.
    • Cognitive deterioration and duration of untreated psychosis.

      Gaynor, Keith; Dooley, Barbara; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Lawoyin, L Richard; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. keith.gaynor@gmail.com (2009-05)
      The length of DUP predicted cognitive deterioration. These results highlight a potential DUP grace period (>6 months) in which significant cognitive deterioration may be averted.
    • Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

      Lyne, John Paul; O'Donoghue, Brian; Clancy, Maurice; O'Gara, Colin; Addictions Department, St. John of God Hospital, Stillorgan, Co. Dublin, Ireland. johnlyne@mail.com (2011)
      A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
    • A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

      Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine; St. John of God Carmona Services, 111 Upper Glenageary Road, Dun Laoghaire, Co Dublin, Ireland. (Elsevier, 2009-03)
      This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.
    • Concurrent cocaine and alcohol use in individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program

      Lyne, J.; O’Donoghue, B.; Clancy, M.; Kinsella, A.; O’Gara, C. (2010-06)
    • Defining "Sexualized Challenging Behavior" in Adults With Intellectual Disabilities

      Lockhart, Karen; Guerin, Suzanne; Shanahan, Sean; Coyle, Kevin; St John of God North East Services; School of Psychology, University College Dublin; St John of God Kildare Services; St John of God Carmona Services (Wiley Periodicals, Inc / IASSID, 2009-12)
    • Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH): a follow-up study of Irish children.

      Cassidy, C; McNicholas, F; Lennon, R; Tobin, B; Doherty, M; Adamson, N; Department of Child Psychiatry, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin. (2009-04)
      This study aimed to look at rates of repetition in children presenting with Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) to a paediatric A&E department. Children presenting with DSH to a paediatric A&E between 2000 and 2005 were invited to participate in the study. Telephone interviews collected information on demographic details and mental health functioning, including repetition of DSH. Data was obtained from 39 parents and 10 children (31 girls and 8 boys, mean age 15) 1 in 5 females (20%) had made a repeat attempt of DSH and 1 in 10 (10%) had repeated more than once. No males repeated self-harm. On going parental concern rather than clinician risk assessment at index episode predicted subsequent DSH. Given the poor predictive value of clinician risk assessment, all attempts of DSH must be taken seriously, especially those associated with ongoing parental concern.
    • Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

      Renwick, Laoise; Jackson, Deirdre; Foley, Sharon; Owens, Elizabeth; Ramperti, Nicolas; Behan, Caragh; Anwar, Mansoor; Kinsella, Anthony; Turner, Niall; Clarke, Mary; et al. (2012-07)
      Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.
    • Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

      Gallagher, Damien; O'Regan, Claire; Savva, George M; Cronin, Hillary; Lawlor, Brian A; Kenny, Rose A; Cluain Mhuire Mental Health Services, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland. gallagherdamien@hotmail.com (2012-12-15)
      Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.
    • Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.

      McNicholas, Fiona; Lydon, Alma; Lennon, Ruth; Dooley, Barbara; Department of Child Psychiatry, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin12, Ireland. Fiona.mcnicholas@sjog.ie (John Wiley & Sons, 2009-05)
      EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes.
    • The effects of daily weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

      McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; St John of God Hospital, Stillorgan, Co. Dublin, Ireland, drstevemb@gmail.com. (2012-08-02)
      Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable daily meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether daily meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and temperature) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for temperature, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed.
    • Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?

      Lockhart, Karen; Guerin, Suzanne; Shanahan, Sean; Coyle, Kevin; School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland. karen.lockhart@sjog.ie (Elsevier, 2010-01)
      It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.
    • Group cognitive behavioural therapy as a treatment for negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis.

      Gaynor, Keith; Dooley, Barbara; Lawlor, Elizabeth; Lawoyin, Richard; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Schools of Psychology, University College Dublin Cluain Mhuire Service, Blackrock, Ireland. keith.gaynor@gmail.com (2011-05)
      We aimed to test the idea that there is an early critical time period during a psychotic illness when patients may be more responsive to psychological treatment attention.
    • Guidelines reduce time to consultation for a liaison psychiatry service in an Irish teaching hospital.

      Lyne, J; O'Donoghue, B; Bonnar, M; Golden, D; Burke, P; Hill, M; Kinsella, A; McInerney, C; Callanan, I; Ryan, M; et al. (2012-06)
      Timeliness of response from referral to consultation is necessary to provide best standards of care to inpatients in the general hospital setting.