• Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

      Gorman, Sheeona; Tosetto, Miriam; Lyng, Fiona; Howe, Orla; Sheahan, Kieran; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid; Hyland, John; Mulcahy, Hugh; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park,, Dublin 4, Ireland. (2012-02-01)
      The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial function through overexpression of MnSOD significantly rescues nuclear instability events; anaphase bridges and telomere length shortening.
    • Radical prostatectomy outcome when performed with PSA above 20 ng/ml.

      Connolly, S S; Oon, S F; Carroll, C; Kinsella, S; O'Brien, M F; Mulvin, D W; Quinlan, D M; Department of Urology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4., stephensconnolly@gmail.com (2012-02-01)
      Many centres currently do not offer radical prostatectomy (RP) to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer due to concerns regarding poor outcome, despite evidence to the contrary. We identified 18 men undergoing RP with serum PSA >20 ng/ml (high-risk by National Comprehensive Cancer Network definition) and minimum follow-up of 12 years (mean 13.5). Mean preoperative PSA was 37.0 ng/ml (Range 21.1-94.0). Prostatectomy pathology reported extracapsular disease in 16 (88.9%), positive surgical margins in 15 (83%) and positive pelvic lymph nodes in 5 (27.8%). Overall and cancer-specific survival at 5 and 10-years was 83.3%, 88.2%, 72% and 76.5% respectively. With complete follow-up 11 (61.1%) are alive, and 5 (27.8%) avoided any adjuvant therapy. Complete continence (defined as no involuntary urine leakage and no use of pads) was achieved in 60%, with partial continence in the remainder. We conclude that surgery for this aggressive variant of localised prostate cancer can result in satisfactory outcome.
    • Radical prostatectomy outcome when performed with PSA above 20ng/ml

      Connolly, SS; Oon, SF; Carroll, C (Irish Medical Journal, 2011-04)
    • Radiographic appearance of a post-epidural headache.

      Weekes, G; Breslin, D; St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4. gavin.weekes@gmail.com (2012-02-01)
      We report the case of a 35-year-old lady who presented with a 6-day history of a postural headache following an uncomplicated epidural catheter insertion. Meningitis was initially suspected and a neurology review was obtained. CT and MRI brain revealed features suggestive of meningitis. However these radiological features are also consistent with post dural puncture headache (PDPH). This case highlights the under reported and possible misleading radiographical features of PDPH.
    • Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

      O'Connell, J; Hayes, F (Irish Medical Journal (IMJ), 2012-03)
    • Randomised controlled trials: important but overrated?

      Boylan, J F; Kavanagh, B P; Armitage, J; St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland. jboylan@iol.ie (2012-02-01)
      Practising physicians individualise treatments, hoping to achieve optimal outcomes by tackling relevant patient variables. The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is universally accepted as the best means of comparison. Yet doctors sometimes wonder if particular patients might benefit more from treatments that fared worse in the RCT comparisons. Such clinicians may even feel ostracised by their peers for stepping outside treatments based on RCTs and guidelines. Are RCTs the only acceptable evaluations of how patient care can be assessed and delivered? In this controversy we explore the interpretation of RCT data for practising clinicians facing individualised patient choices. First, critical care anaesthetists John Boylan and Brian Kavanagh emphasise the dangers of bias and show how Bayesian approaches utilise prior probabilities to improve posterior (combined) probability estimates. Secondly, Jane Armitage, of the Clinical Trial Service Unit in Oxford, argues why RCTs remain essential and explores how the quality of randomisation can be improved through systematic reviews and by avoiding selective reporting.
    • The rapid development of hyponatraemia and seizures in an elderly patient following sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (Picolax).

      Dillon, Cassandra Emily; Laher, Mark S; Department of Geriatrics, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland., cejaneczko@hotmail.com (2012-02-01)
    • Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

      Hogan, A M; Collins, D; Sheehan, K; Zierau, O; Baird, A W; Winter, D C; Institute for Clinical Outcomes Research and Education, St. Vincent's University , Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland. Aislinghogan@yahoo.com (2012-02-01)
      Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta isoform appears to play a predominant role in exerting non-genomic effects.
    • A rare case of BRCA2-associated breast cancer in pregnancy

      Leidhin, C N; Heeney, A; Connolly, C; Swan, N; Foster, A; Geraghty, J (Irish Medical Journal, 2015-07)
      A 30-year old woman was referred to our department with symptomatic breast cancer at 35 weeks gestation. Genetic testing revealed a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation. Labour was induced at 38 weeks. Mastectomy and axillary clearance were performed with a view to adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy. Multidisciplinary involvement is crucial for management of BRCA-associated breast cancer, especially in the context of pregnancy. Bilateral mastectomy may be indicated given the increased risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancers. Tamoxifen may lower contralateral breast cancer risk in those in whom risk-reducing surgery is not performed.
    • The rationale for Janus kinase inhibitors for the treatment of spondyloarthritis.

      Veale, Douglas J; McGonagle, Dennis; McInnes, Iain B; Krueger, James G; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Elewaut, Dirk; Kanik, Keith S; Hendrikx, Thijs; Berstein, Gabriel; Hodge, Jennifer; et al.
      The pathogenesis of SpA is multifactorial and involves a range of immune cell types and cytokines, many of which utilize Janus kinase (JAK) pathways for signaling. In this review, we summarize the animal and pre-clinical data that have demonstrated the effects of JAK blockade on the underlying molecular mechanisms of SpA and provide a rationale for JAK inhibition for the treatment of SpA. We also review the available clinical trial data evaluating JAK inhibitors tofacitinib, baricitinib, peficitinib, filgotinib and upadacitinib in PsA, AS and related inflammatory diseases, which have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents across a range of SpA-associated disease manifestations. The available clinical trial data, supported by pre-clinical animal model studies demonstrate that JAK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SpA and may offer the potential for improvements in multiple articular and extra-articular disease manifestations of PsA and AS.
    • Reactivation of BK polyomavirus in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving natalizumab therapy.

      Lonergan, Roisin M; Carr, Michael J; De Gascun, Cillian F; Costelloe, Lisa F; Waters, Allison; Coughlan, Suzie; Duggan, Marguerite; Doyle, Katie; Jordan, Sinead; Hutchinson, Michael W; et al. (2012-02-01)
      Natalizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis has been associated with JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We hypothesized that natalizumab may also lead to reactivation of BK, a related human polyomavirus capable of causing morbidity in immunosuppressed groups. Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab were prospectively monitored for reactivation of BK virus in blood and urine samples, and for evidence of associated renal dysfunction. In this cohort, JC and BK DNA in blood and urine; cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood and urine; CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and ratios in peripheral blood; and renal function were monitored at regular intervals. BK subtyping and noncoding control region sequencing was performed on samples demonstrating reactivation. Prior to commencement of natalizumab therapy, 3 of 36 patients with multiple sclerosis (8.3%) had BK viruria and BK reactivation occurred in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). BK viruria was transient in 7, continuous in 2 patients, and persistent viruria was associated with transient viremia. Concomitant JC and CMV viral loads were undetectable. CD4:CD8 ratios fluctuated, but absolute CD4 counts did not fall below normal limits. In four of seven patients with BK virus reactivation, transient reductions in CD4 counts were observed at onset of BK viruria: these resolved in three of four patients on resuppression of BK replication. No renal dysfunction was observed in the cohort. BK virus reactivation can occur during natalizumab therapy; however, the significance in the absence of renal dysfunction is unclear. We propose regular monitoring for BK reactivation or at least for evidence of renal dysfunction in patients receiving natalizumab.
    • Real-world experience of leadless left ventricular endocardial cardiac resynchronization therapy: A multicenter international registry of the WiSE-CRT pacing system.

      Sieniewicz, Benjamin J; Betts, Timothy R; James, Simon; Turley, Andrew; Butter, Christian; Seifert, Martin; Boersma, Lucas V A; Riahi, Sam; Neuzil, Petr; Biffi, Mauro; et al. (2020-03-09)
      Background: Biventricular endocardial pacing (BiV ENDO) is a therapy for heart failure patients who cannot receive transvenous epicardial cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or have not responded adequately to CRT. BiV ENDO CRT can be delivered by a new wireless LV ENDO pacing system (WiSE-CRT system; EBR Systems, Sunnyvale, CA), without the requirement for lifelong anticoagulation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the WiSE-CRT system during real-world clinical use in an international registry. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from 14 centers implanting the WiSE-CRT system as part of the WiCS-LV Post Market Surveillance Registry. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02610673). Results: Ninety patients from 14 European centers underwent implantation with the WiSE-CRT system. Patients were predominantly male, age 68.2 ± 10.5 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 30.6% ± 8.9%, mean QRS duration 180.7 ± 27.0 ms, and 40% with ischemic etiology. Successful implantation and delivery of BiV ENDO pacing was achieved in 94.4% of patients. Acute (<24 hours), 1- to 30-day, and 1- to 6-month complications rates were 4.4%, 18.8%, and 6.7%, respectively. Five deaths (5.6%) occurred within 6 months (3 procedure related). Seventy percent of patients had improvement in heart failure symptoms. Conclusion: BiV ENDO pacing with the WiSE-CRT system seems to be technically feasible, with a high success rate. Three procedural deaths occurred during the study. Procedural complications mandate adequate operator training and implantation at centers with immediately available cardiothoracic and vascular surgical support.
    • Real‑world challenge for clinicians treating advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (Review).

      Baxter, Mark A; Petty, Russell D; Swinson, Daniel; Hall, Peter S; O'Hanlon, Shane (2021-03-24)
      Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GOA) is a disease of older people. Incidence is rising in the developed world and the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Based on clinical trial data, systemic chemotherapy in the advanced setting is associated with improvements in quality of life and survival. However, there is a recognised mismatch between trial populations and the patients encountered in clinical practice in terms of age, comorbidity and fitness. Appropriate patient selection is essential to safely deliver effective treatment. In this narrative review, we discuss the challenges faced by clinicians when assessing real‑world patients with advanced GOA for systemic therapy. We also highlight the importance of frailty screening and the current available evidence we can use to guide our management.
    • The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

      Dalzell, Thomas; School of Psychotherapy, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4,, Republic of Ireland. tdalzell@eircom.net (2012-02-01)
      This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler's placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin's dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler's wider and less ominous conception of the illness.
    • Recommendations from the European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer for multigene testing to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer, hormone receptor positive, HER-2 negative.

      Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Lebeau, Annette; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Quinn, Cecily; Langendam, Miranda; McGarrigle, Helen; Warman, Sue; Rigau, David; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; et al. (2021-02-18)
      Background: Predicting the risk of recurrence and response to chemotherapy in women with early breast cancer is crucial to optimise adjuvant treatment. Despite the common practice of using multigene tests to predict recurrence, existing recommendations are inconsistent. Our aim was to formulate healthcare recommendations for the question "Should multigene tests be used in women who have early invasive breast cancer, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy?" Methods: The European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer (ECIBC) Guidelines Development Group (GDG), a multidisciplinary guideline panel including experts and three patients, developed recommendations informed by systematic reviews of the evidence. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Evidence to Decision frameworks were used. Four multigene tests were evaluated: the 21-gene recurrence score (21-RS), the 70-gene signature (70-GS), the PAM50 risk of recurrence score (PAM50-RORS), and the 12-gene molecular score (12-MS). Results: Five studies (2 marker-based design RCTs, two treatment interaction design RCTs and 1 pooled individual data analysis from observational studies) were included; no eligible studies on PAM50-RORS or 12-MS were identified and the GDG did not formulate recommendations for these tests. Conclusions: The ECIBC GDG suggests the use of the 21-RS for lymph node-negative women (conditional recommendation, very low certainty of evidence), recognising that benefits are probably larger in women at high risk of recurrence based on clinical characteristics. The ECIBC GDG suggests the use of the 70-GS for women at high clinical risk (conditional recommendation, low certainty of evidence), and recommends not using 70-GS in women at low clinical risk (strong recommendation, low certainty of evidence).
    • Rectal carcinoids: a systematic review.

      McDermott, Frank D; Heeney, Anna; Courtney, Danielle; Mohan, Helen; Winter, Des; Institute for Clinical Outcomes, Research and Education (ICORE), St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland, fmcdermott@doctors.net.uk. (2014-07)
      Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.
    • The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity.

      O'Connell, Jean; Lynch, Lydia; Cawood, Tom J; Kwasnik, Anna; Nolan, Niamh; Geoghegan, Justin; McCormick, Aiden; O'Farrelly, Cliona; O'Shea, Donal; Obesity Research Group, Education and Research Centre, St Vincent's University, Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. jeanoco@gmail.com (2012-02-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported the existence of a subgroup of obese individuals with normal metabolic profiles. It remains unclear what factors are responsible for this phenomenon. We proposed that adipocyte size might be a key factor in the protection of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals from the adverse effects of obesity. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five patients undergoing bariatric surgery were classified as MHO (n = 15) or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO, n = 20) according to cut-off points adapted from the International Diabetes Federation definition of the metabolic syndrome. Median body mass index (BMI) was 48 (range 40-71). RESULTS: There was a moderate correlation between omental adipocyte size and subcutaneous adipocyte size (r = 0.59, p<0.05). The MHO group had significantly lower mean omental adipocyte size (80.9+/-10.9 microm) when compared with metabolically unhealthy patients (100.0+/-7.6 microm, p<0.0001). Mean subcutaneous adipocyte size was similar between the two groups (104.1+/-8.5 microm versus 107.9+/-7.1 microm). Omental, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size, correlated with the degree of insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p<0.0005), as well as other metabolic parameters including triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio and HbA1c. Twenty-eight patients consented to liver biopsy. Of these, 46% had steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Fifty percent (including all the MHO patients) had steatosis only. Both omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size were significantly associated with the degree of steatosis (r = 0.66, p<0.0001 and r = 0.63, p<0.005 respectively). However, only omental adipocyte size was an independent predictor of the presence or absence of fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Metabolically healthy individuals are a distinct subgroup of the severely obese. Both subcutaneous and omental adipocyte size correlated positively with the degree of fatty liver, but only omental adipocyte size was related to metabolic health, and possibly progression from hepatic steatosis to fibrosis.
    • The REMAP-CAP (Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform for Community-acquired Pneumonia) Study. Rationale and Design.

      Angus, Derek C; Berry, Scott; Lewis, Roger J; Al-Beidh, Farah; Arabi, Yaseen; van Bentum-Puijk, Wilma; Bhimani, Zahra; Bonten, Marc; Broglio, Kristine; Brunkhorst, Frank; et al. (2020-04)
      There is broad interest in improved methods to generate robust evidence regarding best practice, especially in settings where patient conditions are heterogenous and require multiple concomitant therapies. Here, we present the rationale and design of a large, international trial that combines features of adaptive platform trials with pragmatic point-of-care trials to determine best treatment strategies for patients admitted to an intensive care unit with severe community-acquired pneumonia. The trial uses a novel design, entitled "a randomized embedded multifactorial adaptive platform." The design has five key features: 1) randomization, allowing robust causal inference; 2) embedding of study procedures into routine care processes, facilitating enrollment, trial efficiency, and generalizability; 3) a multifactorial statistical model comparing multiple interventions across multiple patient subgroups; 4) response-adaptive randomization with preferential assignment to those interventions that appear most favorable; and 5) a platform structured to permit continuous, potentially perpetual enrollment beyond the evaluation of the initial treatments. The trial randomizes patients to multiple interventions within four treatment domains: antibiotics, antiviral therapy for influenza, host immunomodulation with extended macrolide therapy, and alternative corticosteroid regimens, representing 240 treatment regimens. The trial generates estimates of superiority, inferiority, and equivalence between regimens on the primary outcome of 90-day mortality, stratified by presence or absence of concomitant shock and proven or suspected influenza infection. The trial will also compare ventilatory and oxygenation strategies, and has capacity to address additional questions rapidly during pandemic respiratory infections. As of January 2020, REMAP-CAP (Randomized Embedded Multifactorial Adaptive Platform for Community-acquired Pneumonia) was approved and enrolling patients in 52 intensive care units in 13 countries on 3 continents. In February, it transitioned into pandemic mode with several design adaptations for coronavirus disease 2019. Lessons learned from the design and conduct of this trial should aid in dissemination of similar platform initiatives in other disease areas.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02735707).
    • Remifentanil for the insertion and removal of long-term central venous access during monitored anesthesia care.

      Burlacu, Crina L; McKeating, Kevin; McShane, Alan J; Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, St. Vincent's, University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland. crina@ireland.com (2012-02-01)
      STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the analgesic efficacy of three different rates of remifentanil infusion in patients undergoing insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices during monitored anesthesia care and local anesthetic field infiltration. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Operating theatre of an University hospital. PATIENTS: 44 unpremedicated, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18-65 years, undergoing insertion or removal of a Port-a-Cath or Hickman catheter. INTERVENTIONS: Patients sedated with a propofol target-controlled infusion were randomly allocated to three groups: Group R25 (n = 14), Group R50 (n = 15), and Group R75 (n = 15), to receive remifentanil 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 mug/kg/min, respectively. Rescue remifentanil 0.5 mug/kg was administered for pain scores > 3. The remifentanil infusion rate was maintained constant unless respiratory and/or cardiovascular unwanted events occurred, whereupon the rate was adjusted in 0.01 mug/kg/min decrements as necessary. MEASUREMENTS: Pain scores (primary outcome), sedation, and movement scores (secondary outcomes) were assessed during local anesthetic infiltration of the anterior chest wall and 5 other procedural steps. MAIN RESULTS: All infusion rates had equal analgesic efficacy, as shown by comparable pain scores, number of rescue boluses, and number of patients requiring rescue analgesia. Excessive sedation was associated with the highest remifentanil rate such that Group R75 patients were significantly more sedated than Groups R25 or R50 at selective procedural steps (P < 0.05). More Group R75 patients (6/15) required remifentanil rate reduction than did patients from Group R50 (1/15) or Group R25 (0/14), P < 0.01, most commonly because of respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: For the insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices, all three remifentanil infusion rates proved to be equally analgesic-efficient. However, the excessive sedation and tendency to respiratory and cardiovascular events associated with the highest remifentanil infusion rate renders such a rate less desirable for this purpose.
    • Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

      Hutchinson, Barry D; Keane, David; Dodd, Jonathan D; Department of Radiology, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland. barryhutchinson82@gmail.com (2013-08)
      Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.