Now showing items 1-20 of 342

    • A risk score for prediction of venous thromboembolism in gynecologic cancer: The Thrombogyn score.

      Norris, Lucy A; Ward, Mark P; O'Toole, Sharon A; Marchocki, Zibi; Ibrahim, Nadia; Khashan, Ali S; Abu Saadeh, Feras; Gleeson, Noreen (2020-05-28)
      Background: Gynecologic cancers are associated with high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is exacerbated by pelvic surgery and chemotherapy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk score for VTE in patients with gynecologic cancer and to test the predictive ability of the score following addition of procoagulant biomarker data. Patients and methods: Clinical and laboratory variables were used to develop a risk score for the prediction of VTE in patients with gynecological cancer (n = 616), which was validated in a separate cohort of patients (n = 406). Endogenous thrombin potential and D-dimer levels were determined in a subset (n = 290) of patients and used to produce an extended score in the validation cohort. Results: Multivariable regression analysis identified BMI >30, hemoglobin <11.5 g/dL and chemotherapy as independent predictors of VTE, which formed the Thrombogyn score. Following competing risk regression analysis, subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs), adjusted for cancer stage, were 8.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-43.77) in the high-risk group (score = 2-3) and 4.12 (95% CI, 0.85-20.15) in the intermediate-risk group (score = 1) compared with the low-risk group (score = 0). SHRs for the validation cohort were 6.26 (95% CI, 1.24-31.39) and 3.00 (95% CI, 0.67-13.32), respectively. Cumulative incidence of VTE in the validation cohort high-risk group was 10.34% (95% CI, 6.51-16.41) per women-years compared with 1.06% (95% CI, 0.26-4.26) in the low-risk group. Using the extended Thrombogyn score, adjusted SHRs were 16.83 (95% CI, 4.20-67.37) in the high-risk group with a cumulative incidence of 21.15% (95% CI, 10.32-45.24). External validation of the score is required. Conclusions: The Thrombogyn score identifies patients with gynecologic cancer at high and low risk of VTE. Addition of biomarker data improves the predictive power of the score.
    • Development and relative validation of a short food frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intakes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

      Bredin, Carla; Naimimohasses, Sara; Norris, Suzanne; Wright, Ciara; Hancock, Neil; Hart, Kathryn; Moore, J Bernadette (2019-02-25)
      Fifty-five patients completed both the SFFQ and the 4DDD within 30 weeks; 42 (76%) were diagnosed with simple steatosis, whereas 13 (24%) had biopsy-proven steatohepatitis; the majority were overweight or obese, with a median (25th; 75th percentile) BMI of 33.2 kg/m2 (29.3; 36.0). Reported energy intakes were well below EER with a median intake of 73% of requirements, suggesting widespread under-reporting. Significant correlations were observed between sugar (r = 0.408, P = 0.002), fat (r = 0.44, P = 0.001), fruits (r = 0.51, P = 0.0001) and vegetables (r = 0.40, P = 0.0024) measurements by the SFFQ and 4DDD. Bland Altman plots with regression analysis demonstrated broad comparability with the 4DDD for intakes of fat (bias - 13.8 g/day) and sugar (bias  + 12.9 g/day).
    • Letter to the editor: HIV in women in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region.

      Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Mulcahy, Fiona; Gilleece, Yvonne; On Behalf Of Wave (2020-01-30)
    • Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Short-Term Outcome in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

      Zampieri, Fernando G; Póvoa, Pedro; Salluh, Jorge I; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Valade, Sandrine; Andrade Gomes, José; Reignier, Jean; Molinos, Elena; Almirall, Jordi; Boussekey, Nicolas; et al. (2018-04-26)
      Objective: To assess whether ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTIs) are associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Materials and methods: Post hoc analysis of prospective cohort study including mechanically ventilated patients from a multicenter prospective observational study (TAVeM study); VA-LRTI was defined as either ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) based on clinical criteria and microbiological confirmation. Association between intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients having ARDS with and without VA-LRTI was assessed through logistic regression controlling for relevant confounders. Association between VA-LRTI and duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay was assessed through competing risk analysis. Contribution of VA-LRTI to a mortality model over time was assessed through sequential random forest models. Results: The cohort included 2960 patients of which 524 fulfilled criteria for ARDS; 21% had VA-LRTI (VAT = 10.3% and VAP = 10.7%). After controlling for illness severity and baseline health status, we could not find an association between VA-LRTI and ICU mortality (odds ratio: 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.83; P = .796); VA-LRTI was also not associated with prolonged ICU length of stay or duration of mechanical ventilation. The relative contribution of VA-LRTI to the random forest mortality model remained constant during time. The attributable VA-LRTI mortality for ARDS was higher than the attributable mortality for VA-LRTI alone.
    • Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: A Prospective Cohort Study.

      Nyberg, Tommy; Frost, Debra; Barrowdale, Daniel; Evans, D Gareth; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Adlard, Julian; Ahmed, Munaza; Barwell, Julian; Brady, Angela F; Brewer, Carole; et al. (2019-09-06)
      Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. Objective: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. Design, setting, and participants: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. Results and limitations: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers.
    • Antimicrobial De-Escalation in the ICU: From Recommendations to Level of Evidence.

      Lakbar, Ines; De Waele, Jan J; Tabah, Alexis; Einav, Sharon; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Leone, Marc (2020-05-27)
      Antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) is a component of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) aimed to reduce exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In the intensive care unit, ADE is a strong recommendation that is moderately applied in clinical practice. Following a systematic review of the literature, we assessed the studies identified on the topic which included one randomized controlled trial and 20 observational studies. The literature shows a low level of evidence, although observational studies suggested that this procedure is safe. The effects of ADE on the level of resistance of ecological systems and especially on the microbiota are unclear. The reviewers recommend de-escalating antimicrobial treatment in patients requiring long-term antibiotic therapy and considering de-escalation in short-term treatments.
    • PIM kinase inhibition: co-targeted therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer.

      Luszczak, Sabina; Kumar, Christopher; Sathyadevan, Vignesh Krishna; Simpson, Benjamin S; Gately, Kathy A; Whitaker, Hayley C; Heavey, Susan (2020-01-31)
      PIM kinases have been shown to play a role in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as in some of the hallmarks of cancer, especially proliferation and apoptosis. Their upregulation in prostate cancer has been correlated with decreased patient overall survival and therapy resistance. Initial efforts to inhibit PIM with monotherapies have been hampered by compensatory upregulation of other pathways and drug toxicity, and as such, it has been suggested that co-targeting PIM with other treatment approaches may permit lower doses and be a more viable option in the clinic. Here, we present the rationale and basis for co-targeting PIM with inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR/AKT, JAK/STAT, MYC, stemness, and RNA Polymerase I transcription, along with other therapies, including androgen deprivation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Such combined approaches could potentially be used as neoadjuvant therapies, limiting the development of resistance to treatments or sensitizing cells to other therapeutics. To determine which drugs should be combined with PIM inhibitors for each patient, it will be key to develop companion diagnostics that predict response to each co-targeted option, hopefully providing a personalized medicine pathway for subsets of prostate cancer patients in the future.
    • Difficult Airway Society guidelines for awake tracheal intubation (ATI) in adults.

      Ahmad, I; El-Boghdadly, K; Bhagrath, R; Hodzovic, I; McNarry, A F; Mir, F; O'Sullivan, E P; Patel, A; Stacey, M; Vaughan, D (2019-11-14)
      Awake tracheal intubation has a high success rate and a favourable safety profile but is underused in cases of anticipated difficult airway management. These guidelines are a comprehensive document to support decision making, preparation and practical performance of awake tracheal intubation. We performed a systematic review of the literature seeking all of the available evidence for each element of awake tracheal intubation in order to make recommendations. In the absence of high-quality evidence, expert consensus and a Delphi study were used to formulate recommendations. We highlight key areas of awake tracheal intubation in which specific recommendations were made, which included: indications; procedural setup; checklists; oxygenation; airway topicalisation; sedation; verification of tracheal tube position; complications; management of unsuccessful awake tracheal intubation; post-tracheal intubation management; consent; and training. We recognise that there are a range of techniques and regimens that may be effective and one such example technique is included. Breaking down the key practical elements of awake tracheal intubation into sedation, topicalisation, oxygenation and performance might help practitioners to plan, perform and address complications. These guidelines aim to support clinical practice and help lower the threshold for performing awake tracheal intubation when indicated.
    • Speech Sound Disorders in Children: An Articulatory Phonology Perspective.

      Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Coleman, Deirdre; O'Dwyer, Aisling; van Lieshout, Pascal (2020-01-28)
      Speech Sound Disorders (SSDs) is a generic term used to describe a range of difficulties producing speech sounds in children (McLeod and Baker, 2017). The foundations of clinical assessment, classification and intervention for children with SSD have been heavily influenced by psycholinguistic theory and procedures, which largely posit a firm boundary between phonological processes and phonetics/articulation (Shriberg, 2010). Thus, in many current SSD classification systems the complex relationships between the etiology (distal), processing deficits (proximal) and the behavioral levels (speech symptoms) is under-specified (Terband et al., 2019a). It is critical to understand the complex interactions between these levels as they have implications for differential diagnosis and treatment planning (Terband et al., 2019a). There have been some theoretical attempts made towards understanding these interactions (e.g., McAllister Byun and Tessier, 2016) and characterizing speech patterns in children either solely as the product of speech motor performance limitations or purely as a consequence of phonological/grammatical competence has been challenged (Inkelas and Rose, 2007; McAllister Byun, 2012). In the present paper, we intend to reconcile the phonetic-phonology dichotomy and discuss the interconnectedness between these levels and the nature of SSDs using an alternative perspective based on the notion of an articulatory "gesture" within the broader concepts of the Articulatory Phonology model (AP; Browman and Goldstein, 1992). The articulatory "gesture" serves as a unit of phonological contrast and characterization of the resulting articulatory movements (Browman and Goldstein, 1992; van Lieshout and Goldstein, 2008). We present evidence supporting the notion of articulatory gestures at the level of speech production and as reflected in control processes in the brain and discuss how an articulatory "gesture"-based approach can account for articulatory behaviors in typical and disordered speech production (van Lieshout, 2004; Pouplier and van Lieshout, 2016). Specifically, we discuss how the AP model can provide an explanatory framework for understanding SSDs in children. Although other theories may be able to provide alternate explanations for some of the issues we will discuss, the AP framework in our view generates a unique scope that covers linguistic (phonology) and motor processes in a unified manner.
    • Cannabinoids in the Older Person: A Literature Review.

      Beedham, William; Sbai, Magda; Allison, Isabel; Coary, Roisin; Shipway, David (2020-01-13)
      Introduction: Medical cannabinoids have received significant mainstream media attention in recent times due to an evolving political and clinical landscape. Whilst the efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of some childhood epilepsy syndromes is increasingly recognized, medical cannabinoids may also have potential clinical roles in the treatment of older adults. Prescribing restrictions for medical cannabinoids in certain jurisdictions (including the UK) has recently been relaxed. However, few geriatricians have the detailed knowledge or awareness of the potential risks or rewards of utilizing cannabinoids in the older person; even fewer geriatricians have direct experience of using these drugs in their own clinical practice. Older persons are more likely to suffer from medical illness representing potential indications for medical cannabinoids (e.g., pain); equally they may be more vulnerable to any adverse effects. Aim: This narrative literature review aims to provide a brief introduction for the geriatrician to the potential indications, evidence-base, contra-indications and side effects of medical cannabinoids in older people. Methods: A search was conducted of CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and psycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science databases. Reference lists were hand searched. Abstracts and titles were screened, followed by a full text reading of relevant articles. Results: 35 studies were identified as relevant for this narrative review. Conclusions: Cannabinoids demonstrate some efficacy in the treatment of pain and chemotherapy-related nausea; limited data suggest potential benefits in the treatment of spasticity and anxiety. Risks of cannabinoids in older patients appear to be moderate, and their frequency comparable to other analgesic drug classes. However, the quality of research is weak, and few older patients have been enrolled in cannabinoid studies. Dedicated research is needed to determine the efficiency and safety of cannabinoids in older patients.
    • Is Eminectomy Effective in the Management of Chronic Closed Lock?

      Shah, Ketan; Brown, Andrew Nicholas; Clark, Robert; Israr, Mohammed; Starr, Donald; Stassen, Leo F A (2019-04-05)
      Purpose: This study assesses the effectiveness of eminectomy in the management of chronic closed lock, refractory to conservative medical management in the largest multi-centred study of its kind in the UK, with a cohort of 167 patients. Temporomandibular mandibular joint disorder affects 30% of adults in the UK. Chronic closed lock is a well-documented sub-type. Method: A retrospective study of patients with refractory closed lock was carried out, where conservative management had been implemented for a minimum of 6 months. Refractory patients were offered eminectomy at three separate centres over a period from 1995 to 2011. The primary variable was the inter-incisal distance (IID). Other variables included pain, clicking and nerve damage pre- and post-operatively. Results: There were 167 patients across all three centres, 81% of which were female. The mean IID was 23 mm pre-operatively and 37 mm post-operatively. There was a statistically significant association with the primary predictor variable, yielding a p value of < 0.05. Clicking resolved completely post-operatively in 84 patients (58%). Pain subjectively improved in 56% cases. Conclusion: Eminectomy is a safe and effective surgical procedure and has a role to play as a second-line surgical option in the management of closed lock after more conservative medical options have failed.
    • Update of the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU.

      Zaragoza, Rafael; Vidal-Cortés, Pablo; Aguilar, Gerardo; Borges, Marcio; Diaz, Emili; Ferrer, Ricard; Maseda, Emilio; Nieto, Mercedes; Nuvials, Francisco Xavier; Ramirez, Paula; et al. (2020-06-29)
      In accordance with the recommendations of, amongst others, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the recently published European treatment guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), in the event of a patient with such infections, empirical antibiotic treatment must be appropriate and administered as early as possible. The aim of this manuscript is to update treatment protocols by reviewing recently published studies on the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the critically ill patients that require invasive respiratory support and patients with HAP from hospital wards that require invasive mechanical ventilation. An interdisciplinary group of experts, comprising specialists in anaesthesia and resuscitation and in intensive care medicine, updated the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance and established clinical management priorities based on patients' risk factors. Implementation of rapid diagnostic microbiological techniques available and the new antibiotics recently added to the therapeutic arsenal has been reviewed and updated. After analysis of the categories outlined, some recommendations were suggested, and an algorithm to update empirical and targeted treatment in critically ill patients has also been designed. These aspects are key to improve VAP outcomes because of the severity of patients and possible acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs).
    • Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Incidence, Microbiology and Outcome of Ventilator-Associated Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

      Rouzé, Anahita; Boddaert, Pauline; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Povoa, Pedro; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Ramdane, Nassima; Salluh, Jorge; Houard, Marion; Nseir, Saad (2020-01-23)
      Objectives: To determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on incidence, microbiology, and outcomes of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI). Methods: Planned ancillary analysis of TAVeM study, including 2960 consecutive adult patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) > 48 h. COPD patients (n = 494) were compared to non-COPD patients (n = 2466). The diagnosis of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was based on clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. Results: No significant difference was found in VAP (12% versus 13%, p = 0.931), or VAT incidence (13% versus 10%, p = 0.093) between COPD and non-COPD patients. Among patients with VA-LRTI, Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were significantly more frequent in COPD patients as compared with non-COPD patients. However, COPD had no significant impact on multidrug-resistant bacteria incidence. Appropriate antibiotic treatment was not significantly associated with progression from VAT to VAP among COPD patients who developed VAT, unlike non-COPD patients. Among COPD patients, patients who developed VAT or VAP had significantly longer MV duration (17 days (9-30) or 15 (8-27) versus 7 (4-12), p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (24 (17-39) or 21 (14-40) versus 12 (8-19), p < 0.001) than patients without VA-LRTI. ICU mortality was also higher in COPD patients who developed VAP (44%), but not VAT(38%), as compared to no VA-LRTI (26%, p = 0.006). These worse outcomes associated with VA-LRTI were similar among non-COPD patients. Conclusions: COPD had no significant impact on incidence or outcomes of patients who developed VAP or VAT.
    • The development and cognitive testing of the positive outcomes HIV PROM: a brief novel patient-reported outcome measure for adults living with HIV.

      Bristowe, K; Murtagh, F E M; Clift, P; James, R; Josh, J; Platt, M; Whetham, J; Nixon, E; Post, F A; McQuillan, K; et al. (2020-07-06)
      Background: People living with HIV experience burdensome multidimensional symptoms and concerns requiring person-centred care. Routine use of patient reported outcome measures can improve outcomes. There is no brief patient reported outcome measure (PROM) that currently reflects the breadth of concerns for people living with HIV. This study aimed to develop and cognitively test a brief novel patient reported outcome measure for use within routine adult HIV care- the "Positive Outcomes" HIV PROM. Methods: Development followed the COSMIN taxonomy and guidance for relevance and comprehensiveness, and Rothrock guidance on development of valid patient reported outcome measures. The Positive Outcomes HIV PROM was developed by a steering group (people living with HIV, HIV professionals and health services researchers) using findings from a previously reported qualitative study of priority outcomes for people living with HIV. The prototype measure was cognitively tested with a purposive sample of people living with HIV. Results: The Positive Outcomes HIV PROM consists of 23 questions (22 structured, and one open question) informed by the priorities of key stakeholders (n = 28 people living with HIV, n = 21 HIV professionals and n = 8 HIV commissioners) to ensure face and content validity, and refined through cognitive testing (n = 6 people living with HIV). Cognitive testing demonstrated high levels of acceptability and accessibility. Conclusions: The Positive Outcomes HIV PROM is the first brief patient reported outcome measure reflecting the diverse needs of people living with HIV designed specifically for use in the clinical setting to support patient assessment and care, and drive service quality improvement. It is derived from primary data on the priority outcomes for people living with HIV and is comprehensive and acceptable. Further psychometric testing is required to ensure reliability and responsiveness.
    • Recent Progress and Recommendations on Celiac Disease From the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity.

      Scherf, Katharina A; Catassi, Carlo; Chirdo, Fernando; Ciclitira, Paul J; Feighery, Conleth; Gianfrani, Carmen; Koning, Frits; Lundin, Knut E A; Schuppan, Detlef; Smulders, Marinus J M; et al. (2020-03-17)
      Celiac disease (CD) affects a growing number of individuals worldwide. To elucidate the causes for this increase, future multidisciplinary collaboration is key to understanding the interactions between immunoreactive components in gluten-containing cereals and the human gastrointestinal tract and immune system and to devise strategies for CD prevention and treatment beyond the gluten-free diet. During the last meetings, the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity (Prolamin Working Group, PWG) discussed recent progress in the field together with key stakeholders from celiac disease societies, academia, industry and regulatory bodies. Based on the current state of knowledge, this perspective from the PWG members provides recommendations regarding clinical, analytical and legal aspects of CD. The selected key topics that require future multidisciplinary collaborative efforts in the clinical field are to collect robust data on the increasing prevalence of CD, to evaluate what is special about gluten-specific T cells, to study their kinetics and transcriptomics and to put some attention to the identification of the environmental agents that facilitate the breaking of tolerance to gluten. In the field of gluten analysis, the key topics are the precise assessment of gluten immunoreactive components in wheat, rye and barley to understand how these are affected by genetic and environmental factors, the comparison of different methods for compliance monitoring of gluten-free products and the development of improved reference materials for gluten analysis.
    • Results from a multicenter, noninterventional registry study for multiple myeloma patients who received stem cell mobilization regimens with and without plerixafor.

      Morris, Curly; Chabannon, Christian; Masszi, Tamas; Russell, Nigel; Nahi, Hareth; Kobbe, Guido; Krejci, Marta; Auner, Holger W; Pohlreich, David; Hayden, Patrick; et al. (2019-09-18)
      Plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for collection and subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This international, multicenter, noninterventional registry study (NCT01362972), evaluated long-term outcomes for MM patients who received plerixafor versus other mobilization regimens. The comparisons were: G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF + P) versus G-CSF-; G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G-CSF + C); and G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C. Propensity score matching was used to balance groups. Primary outcome measures were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) after transplantation. After propensity matching, 77 versus 41 patients in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF cohorts, 129 versus 129 in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + C cohorts, and 117 versus 117 in the G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C cohorts were matched, respectively. Propensity score matching resulted in a smaller sample size and imbalances were not completely overcome. For both PFS and OS, the upper limits of the hazard ratio 95% confidence intervals exceeded prespecified boundaries; noninferiority was not demonstrated. CIR rates were higher in the plerixafor cohorts. G-CSF + P remains an option for the mobilization of HSCs in poor mobilizers with MM with no substantial differences in PFS, OS, and CIR in comparison with other regimens.
    • Management of bone health in patients with cancer: a survey of specialist nurses.

      Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; van Muilekom, Erik; de la Torre-Montero, Julio C; Leonard, Kay; van Oostwaard, Marsha; Niepel, Daniela; Jensen, Bente Thoft (2019-06-15)
      Background: Patients with cancer can experience bone metastases and/or cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL), and the resulting bone complications place burdens on patients and healthcare provision. Management of bone complications is becoming increasingly important as cancer survival rates improve. Advances in specialist oncology nursing practice benefit patients through better management of their bone health, which may improve quality of life and survival. Methods: An anonymised online quantitative survey asked specialist oncology nurses about factors affecting their provision of support in the management of bone metastases and CTIBL. Results: Of 283 participants, most stated that they worked in Europe, and 69.3% had at least 8 years of experience in oncology. The most common areas of specialisation were medical oncology, breast cancer and/or palliative care (20.8-50.9%). Awareness of bone loss prevention measures varied (from 34.3% for alcohol intake to 77.4% for adequate calcium intake), and awareness of hip fracture risk factors varied (from 28.6% for rheumatoid arthritis to 74.6% for age > 65 years). Approximately one-third reported a high level of confidence in managing bone metastases (39.9%) and CTIBL (33.2%). International or institution guidelines were used by approximately 50% of participants. Common barriers to better specialist care and treatment were reported to be lack of training, funding, knowledge or professional development. Conclusion: This work is the first quantitative analysis of reports from specialist oncology nurses about the management of bone metastases and CTIBL. It indicates the need for new nursing education initiatives with a focus on bone health management.
    • Recommendations for core critical care ultrasound competencies as a part of specialist training in multidisciplinary intensive care: a framework proposed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).

      Wong, Adrian; Galarza, Laura; Forni, Lui; De Backer, Daniel; Slama, Michael; Cholley, Bernard; Mayo, Paul; McLean, Anthony; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Lichtenstein, Daniel; et al. (2020-07-03)
      Critical care ultrasound (CCUS) is an essential component of intensive care practice. Although existing international guidelines have focused on training principles and determining competency in CCUS, few countries have managed to operationalize this guidance into an accessible, well-structured programme for clinicians training in multidisciplinary intensive care. We seek to update and reaffirm appropriate CCUS scope so that it may be integrated into the international Competency-based Training in Intensive Care Medicine. The resulting recommendations offer the most contemporary and evolved set of core CCUS competencies for an intensive care clinician yet described. Importantly, we discuss the rationale for inclusion but also exclusion of competencies listed. Background/aim: Critical care ultrasound (CCUS) is an essential component of intensive care practice. The purpose of this consensus document is to determine those CCUS competencies that should be a mandatory part of training in multidisciplinary intensive care. Methods: A three-round Delphi method followed by face-to-face meeting among 32 CCUS experts nominated by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Agreement of at least 90% of experts was needed in order to enlist a competency as mandatory. Results: The final list of competencies includes 15 echocardiographic, 5 thoracic, 4 abdominal, deep vein thrombosis diagnosis and central venous access aid. Conclusion: The resulting recommendations offer the most contemporary and evolved set of core CCUS competencies for an intensive care clinician yet described.
    • Review of influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in ICU patients and proposal for a case definition: an expert opinion.

      Verweij, Paul E; Rijnders, Bart J A; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Azoulay, Elie; Bassetti, Matteo; Blot, Stijn; Calandra, Thierry; Clancy, Cornelius J; Cornely, Oliver A; Chiller, Tom; et al. (2020-06-22)
      Purpose: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly reported in patients with influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Classification of patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) using the current definitions for invasive fungal diseases has proven difficult, and our aim was to develop case definitions for IAPA that can facilitate clinical studies. Methods: A group of 29 international experts reviewed current insights into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IAPA and proposed a case definition of IAPA through a process of informal consensus. Results: Since IAPA may develop in a wide range of hosts, an entry criterion was proposed and not host factors. The entry criterion was defined as a patient requiring ICU admission for respiratory distress with a positive influenza test temporally related to ICU admission. In addition, proven IAPA required histological evidence of invasive septate hyphae and mycological evidence for Aspergillus. Probable IAPA required the detection of galactomannan or positive Aspergillus culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or serum with pulmonary infiltrates or a positive culture in upper respiratory samples with bronchoscopic evidence for tracheobronchitis or cavitating pulmonary infiltrates of recent onset. The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung. Conclusion: A consensus case definition of IAPA is proposed, which will facilitate research into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this emerging acute and severe Aspergillus disease, and may be of use to study CAPA.
    • Accuracy of the clinical pulmonary infection score to differentiate ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis from ventilator-associated pneumonia.

      Gaudet, Alexandre; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Povoa, Pedro; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Salluh, Jorge; Duhamel, Alain; Nseir, Saad (2020-08-03)
      Background: Differentiating Ventilator-Associated Tracheobronchitis (VAT) from Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) may be challenging for clinicians, yet their management currently differs. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) to differentiate VAT and VAP. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis based on the data from 2 independent prospective cohorts. Patients of the TAVeM database with a diagnosis of VAT (n = 320) or VAP (n = 369) were included in the derivation cohort. Patients admitted to the Intensive Care Centre of Lille University Hospital between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017 who had a diagnosis of VAT (n = 70) or VAP (n = 139) were included in the validation cohort. The accuracy of the CPIS to differentiate VAT from VAP was assessed within the 2 cohorts by calculating sensitivity and specificity values, establishing the ROC curves and choosing the best threshold according to the Youden index. Results: The areas under ROC curves of CPIS to differentiate VAT from VAP were calculated at 0.76 (95% CI [0.72-0.79]) in the derivation cohort and 0.67 (95% CI [0.6-0.75]) in the validation cohort. A CPIS value ≥ 7 was associated with the highest Youden index in both cohorts. With this cut-off, sensitivity and specificity were respectively found at 0.51 and 0.88 in the derivation cohort, and at 0.45 and 0.89 in the validation cohort. Conclusions: A CPIS value ≥ 7 reproducibly allowed to differentiate VAT from VAP with high specificity and PPV and moderate sensitivity and NPV in our derivation and validation cohorts.