• Iatrogenic burns caused by infra red lamp after traditional acupuncture.

      Gul, A; O'sullivan, S T; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Cork University Hospital,, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. adnangul@hotmail.com (2012-02-03)
    • Idiopathic Atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome presenting with acute dystonia

      Maduemem, Rizwan K E (Irish Medical Journal, 2017-09)
      Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. The atypical HUS (aHUS) results from over activation of complement system with formation of micro thrombi and damage to endothelial cells resulting in renal impairment in 50 % and death in 25 %, commonly in untreated patients. We report an intriguing case of aHUS presenting with acute onset of movement disorder and fluctuating delirium.
    • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: treatment update.

      O'Connell, Oisin J; Kennedy, Marcus P; Henry, Michael T; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2011-11)
      Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite multiple recent clinical trials, there is no strong evidence supporting a survival advantage for any agent in the management of patients with IPF. The limited effectiveness of current treatment regimes has led to a search for novel therapies including antifibrotic strategies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the treatments currently used in the management of IPF.
    • IgG4 Related Disease, A Case of Large Vessel Vasculitis

      O’Sullivan, A; Ghazi Al Qatari, S; Murphy, G; Cork University Hospital (Irish Medical Journal, 2018-10)
      This report describes a case of large vessel vasculitis highlighting diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. It describes the use of the B cell depleting agent Rituximab in this setting. This is the case of a 50 year old lady with bipolar disorder presenting with lower limb pain.
    • Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options.

      Falvey, E C; Clark, R A; Franklyn-Miller, A; Bryant, A L; Briggs, C; McCrory, P R; Department of Rheumatology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland, UK. e.falvey@mac.com (2010-08)
      Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome (ITBS) is a common cause of distal lateral thigh pain in athletes. Treatment often focuses on stretching the ITB and treating local inflammation at the lateral femoral condyle (LFC). We examine the area's anatomical and biomechanical properties. Anatomical studies of the ITB of 20 embalmed cadavers. The strain generated in the ITB by three typical stretching maneuvers (Ober test; Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation, with added knee flexion and straight leg raise to 30 degrees ) was measured in five unembalmed cadavers using strain gauges. Displacement of the Tensae Fasciae Latae (TFL)/ITB junction was measured on 20 subjects during isometric hip abduction. The ITB was uniformly a lateral thickening of the circumferential fascia lata, firmly attached along the linea aspera (femur) from greater trochanter up to and including the LFC. The microstrain values [median (IQR)] for the OBER [15.4(5.1-23.3)me], HIP [21.1(15.6-44.6)me] and SLR [9.4(5.1-10.7)me] showed marked disparity in the optimal inter-limb stretching protocol. HIP stretch invoked significantly (Z=2.10, P=0.036) greater strain than the SLR. TFL/ITB junction displacement was 2.0+/-1.6 mm and mean ITB lengthening was <0.5% (effect size=0.04). Our results challenge the reasoning behind a number of accepted means of treating ITBS. Future research must focus on stretching and lengthening the muscular component of the ITB/TFL complex.
    • Image quality associated with the use of an MR-compatible incubator in neonatal neuroimaging.

      O'Regan, K; Filan, P; Pandit, N; Maher, M; Fanning, N; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. kevin.oregan1@hse.ie (2012-04)
      MRI in the neonate poses significant challenges associated with patient transport and monitoring, and the potential for diminished image quality owing to patient motion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a dedicated MR-compatible incubator with integrated radiofrequency coils in improving image quality of MRI studies of the brain acquired in term and preterm neonates using standard MRI equipment.
    • Imaging for cardiotoxicity in cancer patients.

      Banchs, Jose; Jefferies, John L; Plana, Juan Carlos; Hundley, W Gregory; Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. jbanchs@mdanderson.org (Springer, 2011)
    • Imaging of acute pancreatitis.

      O'Connor, Owen J; McWilliams, Sebastian; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, University College Cork, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2011-08)
    • Imaging of biliary tract disease.

      O'Connor, Owen J; O'Neill, Siobhan; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland. (2011-10)
    • Imaging of cholecystitis.

      O'Connor, Owen J; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, University College Cork, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2011-04)
    • Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

      Hodnett, Philip A; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.
    • Imaging of hematuria.

      O'Connor, Owen J; McSweeney, Sean E; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      Hematuria may have a number of causes, of which the more common are urinary tract calculi, urinary tract infection, urinary tract neoplasms (including renal cell carcinoma and urothelial tumors), trauma to the urinary tract, and renal parenchymal disease. This article discusses the current status of imaging of patients suspected of having urologic causes of hematuria. The role of all modalities, including plain radiography, intravenous urography or excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation of these patients is discussed. The article highlights the current status of MDCT urography in imaging of patients with hematuria, and discusses various-often controversial-issues, such as optimal protocol design, accuracy of the technique in imaging of the urothelium, and the significant issue of radiation dose associated with MDCT urography.
    • Imaging of hematuria.

      O'Connor, Owen J; Fitzgerald, Edward; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. (2010-10)
      OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases.
    • Imaging of the complications of acute pancreatitis.

      O'Connor, Owen J; Buckley, Julliette M; Maher, Michael M; Department of Radiology, Cork University Hospital, University College Cork, College Rd, Cork, Cork County 0000, Ireland. owen.oconnor7@gmail.com (2011-09)
    • Imaging the small bowel.

      Murphy, Kevin P; McLaughlin, Patrick D; O'Connor, Owen J; Maher, Michael M; aDepartment of Radiology, Cork University Hospital bDepartment of Radiology, University College Cork, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2014-03)
      Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.
    • Immediate impact of 'penalty points legislation' on acute hospital trauma services.

      Lenehan, Brian; Street, John; Barry, Kieran; Mullan, George; Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland., brian@blenehan.com (2012-02-03)
      Road traffic accident (RTA) related mortality and injury may be reduced by up to 40% with the introduction of 'road safety' legislation. Little is known regarding changes in pattern of injury and overall resource impact on acute trauma services. This prospective study examines RTA related admissions, injuries sustained and resultant sub-speciality operative workload in a Level 1 Trauma Centre during the 12 months immediately prior to and following the introduction of 'penalty points' legislation. Eight hundred and twenty RTA related admissions were identified over the 24-month period from 01/11/2001 to 31/10/2003. There was a 36.7% decrease in RTA related admissions subsequent to the introduction of new legislation. Bed occupancy was almost halved. However, the relative Orthopaedic workload increased from 34% to 41% with a 10% increase in relative bed occupancy. The pattern of orthopaedic injury was significantly altered with a >50% absolute reduction in high velocity injuries. Curiously, there was no change in the absolute number of spinal fractures seen. This favourable early Irish experience of 'penalty points' legislation mirrors that of worldwide published literature. Our findings demonstrate that the injury reduction effects were primarily enjoyed by non-orthopaedic sub-specialities. Such findings mandate consideration when allocating vital resources to sub-specialities within busy trauma units.
    • The immunohistochemical demonstration of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopia.

      Corrigan, Mark Anthony; Shields, Conor J; Keohane, Catherine; Kirwan, William O; Department of Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. markanthonycorrigan@yahoo.com (2009-08)
      The finding of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is rare, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. A condition of unknown etiology, several hypotheses exist including infectious and congenital. We report a case of ectopic gastric tissue in the rectum of a 47-year-old female, and her subsequent clinical course. Furthermore for the first time, we present immunohistologic evidence of the presence of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopic gastric tissue.
    • Immunological and genetic links in Crohn's disease.

      Shanahan, F; Department of Medicine Cork University Hospital Co Cork, Ireland., FShanahan@iruccvax.ucc.ie (2012-02-03)
    • The immunological consequences of injury.

      Ni Choileain, N; Redmond, H P; Department of Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Ireland. nnc1@eircom.net (2012-02-03)
      Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.
    • Immunology. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora.

      Shanahan, F; Department of Medicine, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. fshanahan@ucc.ie (2012-02-03)
      In developed countries as many as two individuals in every thousand suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease). In his Perspective, Shanahan discusses a new therapeutic approach to treating these conditions in which bacteria normally found in the gut are engineered to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and then are fed as probiotics to mice with these disorders (Steidler et al.).