• Early continuous video electroencephalography in neonatal stroke.

      Walsh, Brian H; Low, Evonne; Bogue, Conor O; Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Neonatal Brain Research Group, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. Bh.walsh@ucc.ie (Mac Keith Press, 2011-01)
      Perinatal stroke is the second most common cause of neonatal seizures, and can result in long-term neurological impairment. Diagnosis is often delayed until after seizure onset, owing to the subtle nature of associated signs. We report the early electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in a female infant with a perinatal infarction, born at 41 weeks 2 days and weighing 3.42 kg. Before the onset of seizures, the EEG from 3 hours after delivery demonstrated occasional focal sharp waves over the affected region. After electroclinical seizures, focal sharp waves became more frequent, complex, and of higher amplitude, particularly in 'quiet sleep'. In 'active sleep', sharp waves often disappeared. Diffusion-weighted imaging confirmed the infarct, demonstrating left frontal and parietal diffusion restriction. At 9 months, the infant has had no further seizures, and neurological examination is normal. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the EEG findings in perinatal stroke before seizures, and highlights the evolution of characteristic background EEG features.
    • Early EEG findings in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy predict outcomes at 2 years.

      Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Ryan, Cornelius A; Connolly, Sean; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. d.murray@ucc.ie (2009-09)
      We examined the evolution of electroencephalographic (EEG) changes after hypoxic injury.
    • Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

      Shah, M H; Heffernan, G; McGuinness, A J; Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.
    • Early postnatal EEG features of perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke with seizures.

      Low, Evonne; Mathieson, Sean R; Stevenson, Nathan J; Livingstone, Vicki; Ryan, C Anthony; Bogue, Conor O; Rennie, Janet M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Neonatal Brain Research Group, Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. (2014)
      Stroke is the second most common cause of seizures in term neonates and is associated with abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases.
    • Eccrine syringofibroadenoma of the eyelid in association with eye prosthesis.

      Guerin, M; Droney, T; Keohane, C; Fenton, S (Nature Publishing Group, 2011-08)
    • EEG in the healthy term newborn within 12 hours of birth.

      Korotchikova, I; Connolly, S; Ryan, C A; Murray, D M; Temko, A; Greene, B R; Boylan, G B; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, c/o Clinical Investigation Unit, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. I.Korotchikova@ucc.ie (2009-06)
      To characterise and quantify the EEG during sleep in healthy newborns in the early newborn period.
    • EEG use in a tertiary referral centre.

      O'Toole, O; Lefter, S; McNamara, B; Department of Neurology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork. ootoole@rcsi.ie (2011-11-15)
      The aim of this study was to retrospectively audit all electroencephalograms (EEGs) done over a 2-month period in 2009 by the Neurophysiology Department at Cork University Hospital. There were 316 EEGs performed in total, of which 176/316 (56%) were done within 24 hours of request. Out of 316 EEGs, 208 (66%) were considered 'appropriate' by SIGN and NICE guidelines; 79/208 (38%) had abnormal EEGs and 28 of these abnormal EEGs had epileptiform features. There were 108/316 (34%) 'inappropriate' requests for EEG; of these 15/108 (14%) were abnormal. Of the 67/316 (21%) patients who had EEGs requested based on a history of syncope/funny turns: none of these patients had epileptiform abnormalities on their EEGs. Our audit demonstrates that EEGs are inappropriately over-requested in our institution in particular for cases with reported 'funny turns' and syncope. The yield from EEGs in this cohort of patients was low as would be expected.
    • The effect of a structured neonatal resuscitation program on delivery room practices.

      Ryan, C A; Clark, L M; Malone, A; Ahmed, S; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cork University Hospital, Wilton,, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      PURPOSE: This study evaluated the introduction of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association into the delivery room of an Irish maternity hospital. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled observational study of 51 deliveries before and 51 deliveries following the training of delivery room personnel in the NRP. SAMPLE: Participants were 33 nurse-midwives and 11 pediatric resident physicians. MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLE: Evaluation of postdelivery, newborn resuscitation practices. RESULTS: The introduction of the NRP was associated with significant improvements in delivery room preparation, in the evaluation and management of the newborn infant, and in thermal protection at birth. Although there was a trend to use more free-flow oxygen following the introduction of the NRP, this was not statistically significant. Bag and mask ventilation was also used more frequently following NRP training. However, there were no significant differences in the use of endotracheal intubation, chest compressions, and medications. Fifteen of the 51 infants became hypothermic prior to the introduction of the NRP; none of the infants developed hypothermia in the post-NRP part of the study.
    • Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

      Lydon, A; McGinley, J; Cooke, T; Duggan, P F; Shorten, G D; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, , Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.
    • The effect of aprotinin on hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced changes in neutrophil and endothelial function.

      Harmon, D; Lan, W; Shorten, G; Cork University Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, , Cork, Ireland. dharmon@indigo.ie (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An acute inflammatory response associated with cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion contributes to the development of brain injury. Aprotinin has potential, though unexplained, neuroprotective effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: Human neutrophil CD11 b/CD18, endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and endothelial interleukin (IL)-1beta supernatant concentrations in response to in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation was studied in the presence or absence of aprotinin (1600 KIU mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified using flow cytometry and IL-1beta concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test as appropriate. RESULTS: Exposure to 60-min hypoxia increased neutrophil CD11b expression compared to normoxia (170+/-46% vs. 91+/-27%, P = 0.001) (percent intensity of fluorescence compared to time 0) (n = 8). Hypoxia (60 min) produced greater upregulation of CD11b expression in controls compared to aprotinin-treated neutrophils [(170+/-46% vs. 129+/-40%) (P = 0.04)] (n = 8). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression (155+/-3.7 vs. 43+/-21 mean channel fluorescence, P = 0.0003) and IL-1beta supernatant concentrations compared to normoxia (3.4+/-0.4 vs. 2.6+/-0.2, P = 0.02) (n = 3). Hypoxia-reoxygenation produced greater upregulation of ICAM- 1 expression [(155+/-3.3 vs. 116+/-0.7) (P = 0.001)] and IL-1beta supernatant concentrations [(3.4+/-0.3 vs. 2.6+/-0.1) (P = 0.01)] in controls compared to aprotinin-treated endothelial cell preparation (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced upregulation of neutrophil CD11b, endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations is decreased by aprotinin at clinically relevant concentrations.
    • The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

      Manning, Brian J; O'Brien, Noel; Aravindan, Selvaraj; Cahill, Ronan A; McGreal, Gerald; Redmond, H Paul; Department of Academic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. , bjmanning2002@yahoo.com (2012-02-03)
      Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.
    • The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

      Harmon, D; Coleman, E; Marshall, C; Lan, W; Shorten, G; Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital,, University College Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
    • The effect of hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology.

      Kelly, J L; O'Riordain, D S; Jones, E; Alawi, E; O'Riordain, M G; Kirwan, W O; Department of General Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      Hysterectomy is associated with severe constipation in a subgroup of patients, and an adverse effect on colonic motility has been described in the literature. The onset of irritable bowel syndrome and urinary bladder dysfunction has also been reported after hysterectomy. In this prospective study, we investigated the effect of simple hysterectomy on ano-rectal physiology and bowel function. Thirty consecutive patients were assessed before and 16 weeks after operation. An abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 16 patients, and a vaginal procedure was performed in 14. The parameters measured included the mean resting, and maximal forced voluntary contraction anal pressures, the recto-anal inhibitory reflex, and rectal sensation to distension. In 8 patients, the terminal motor latency of the pudendal nerve was assessed bilaterally. Pre-operatively, 8 patients were constipated. This improved following hysterectomy in 4, worsened in 2, and was unchanged in 2. Symptomatology did not correlate with changes in manometry. Although, the mean resting pressure was reduced after hysterectomy (57 mmHg-53 mmHg, P = 0.0541), the maximal forced voluntary contraction pressure was significantly decreased (115 mmHg-105 mmHg, P = 0.029). This effect was more pronounced in those with five or more previous vaginal deliveries (P = 0.0244, n = 9). There was no significant change in the number of patients with an intact ano-rectal inhibitory reflex after hysterectomy. There was no change in rectal sensation to distension, and the right and left pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were unaltered at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that hysterectomy causes a decrease in the maximal forced voluntary contraction and pressure, and this appears to be due to a large decrease in a small group of patients with previous multiple vaginal deliveries.
    • The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

      Malone, A J; Kearney, P J; Duggan, P F; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cork University Hospital, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley's First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer's quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer's quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.
    • The effect of lidocaine on in vitro neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by plasma obtained during tourniquet-induced ischaemia and reperfusion.

      Lan, W; Harmon, D; Wang, J H; Ghori, K; Shorten, G; Redmond, P; Academic Department of Surgery, Cork University Hospital and University College, Cork, Ireland. dweilan@hotmail.com (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: Changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression occur during perioperative ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on neutrophil-independent changes in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression associated with tourniquet-induced I/R. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from venous blood samples (tourniquet arm) taken before (baseline), during, 15 min, 2 and 24 h following tourniquet release in seven patients undergoing elective upper limb surgery with tourniquet application. Isolated neutrophils from healthy volunteers (n = 7) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1) for 1 h, and then incubated with I/R plasma for 2 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated in the presence or absence of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)) for 1 h, and then incubated with the plasma for 4 h. Adhesion molecule expression was estimated using flow cytometry. Data were analysed using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. RESULTS: I/R plasma (withdrawn 15 min following tourniquet release) increased isolated neutrophil CD11b (P = 0.03), CD18 (P = 0.01) and endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.008) expression compared to baseline. CD11b, CD18 and ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils was similar to control. CD11b (P < 0.001), CD18 (P = 0.03) and ICAM-1 (P = 0.002) expression on lidocaine (0.05 mg mL(-1)) treated neutrophils and HUVECs was less than that on controls. CONCLUSION: Increased in vitro neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression on exposure to plasma obtained during the early reperfusion phase is diminished by lidocaine at greater than clinically relevant plasma concentrations.
    • The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.

      Lan, W; Harmon, D; Wang, J H; Shorten, G; Redmond, P; Cork University Hospital, Academic Department of Surgery, Cork, Ireland., dweilan@hotmail.com (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has actions potentially of benefit during ischaemia-reperfusion. Neutrophils and endothelial cells have an important role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Isolated human neutrophil CD11b and CD18, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) ICAM-1 expression and supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation were studied in the presence or absence of different concentrations of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by flow cytometry and IL- 1beta concentrations by ELISA. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls as appropriate. Data are presented as mean+/-SD. RESULTS: Exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation increased neutrophil CD11b (94.33+/-40.65 vs. 34.32+/-6.83 mean channel fluorescence (MCF), P = 0.02), CD18 (109.84+/-35.44 vs. 59.05+/-6.71 MCF, P = 0.03) and endothelial ICAM-1 (146.62+/-16.78 vs. 47.29+/-9.85 MCF, P < 0.001) expression compared to normoxia. Neutrophil CD18 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (71.07+/-10.14 vs. 109.84+/-35.44 MCF, P = 0.03). Endothelial ICAM-1 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (133.25+/-16.05 vs. 146.62+/-16.78 MCF, P = 0.03). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased HUVEC supernatant IL-1beta concentrations compared to normoxia (3.41+/-0.36 vs. 2.65+/-0.21 pg mL(-1), P = 0.02). Endothelial supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in lidocaine-treated HUVECs were similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine at clinically relevant concentrations decreased neutrophil CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression but not endothelial IL-1beta concentrations.
    • The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

      Swanton, B J; Iohom, G; Wang, J H; Redmond, H P; Shorten, G D; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, , Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil's biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.
    • The effect of midazolam on neutrophil mitogen-activated protein kinase.

      Ghori, Kamran; O'Driscoll, James; Shorten, George; Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. kamrang@hotmail.com (2010-06)
      Neutrophil p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a key enzyme in the intracellular signalling pathway that is responsible for many neutrophil functions, which are important in neutrophil-endothelial interaction. The imidazole compounds are inhibitors of this enzyme system. The objectives of this in-vitro investigation were to examine the effect of midazolam on neutrophil p38 MAPK activation (phosphorylation) following in-vitro ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18.
    • Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study.

      Ghori, Kamran A; Harmon, Dominic C; Elashaal, Abdurrahim; Butler, Mark; Walsh, Fergus; O'Sullivan, Michael G J; Shorten, George D; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, and University College Cork, Ireland. kamrang@hotmail.com (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: Midazolam and propofol are sedative agents commonly administered to patients with brain injury. We compared plasma concentrations of glial cell S100beta protein and nitric oxide (NO) between patients who received midazolam and those who received propofol sedation after severe brain injury, and investigated the association between S100beta and NO concentrations and neurological outcome. DESIGN: 28 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score <9) who required sedation and ventilation were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (n =15) or propofol (n = 13) based sedation. Blood samples were drawn daily for 5 days for estimation of S100beta and NO concentrations. Neurological outcome was assessed 3 months later as good (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS], 4-5) or poor (GOS, 1-3). RESULTS: A good neurological outcome was observed in 8/15 patients (53%) in the midazolam group and 7/13 patients (54%) in the propofol group. Patients with a poor outcome had higher serum S100beta concentrations on ICU admission and on Days 1-4 in the ICU than those with a good outcome (mean [SD] on Day 1, 0.99 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.4] microg/L; Day 2, 0.80 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.24] microg/L; Day 3, 0.52 [0.55] v 0.24 [0.25] microg/L; and Day 4, 0.54 [0.43] v 0.24 [0.35] microg/L; P<0.05). There was no significant difference on Day 5. Plasma NO concentrations were not associated with outcome. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference in S100beta and NO concentrations between patients with a good outcome versus those with a poor outcome in either the midazolam or propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of markers of neurological injury in patients with severe head injury were similar in those who received midazolam sedation and those who received propofol. Patients who had a poor neurological outcome at 3 months had consistently higher serum S100beta concentrations during the initial 4 days after injury than patients who had a good outcome.
    • Effect of perioperative administration of dexketoprofen on opioid requirements and inflammatory response following elective hip arthroplasty.

      Iohom, G; Walsh, M; Higgins, G; Shorten, G; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, and National University of Ireland, Republic of Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and analgesic efficacy of perioperative dexketoprofen were evaluated. METHODS: Thirty ASA I or II patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty were randomized to one of two groups. One group (D) received dexketoprofen 25 mg tds for 24 h before and 48 h after surgery; the second group (P) received placebo tablets at equivalent times. Hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine (17.5 mg if greater than 70 kg and 15 mg if less than 70 kg) and preservative-free morphine (0.6 mg) were administered intrathecally. Postoperatively, PCA was provided (bolus morphine sulphate 1 mg; lockout 5 min; no continuous infusion). RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of age, gender, weight, height, ASA class, duration of operation, and level of sensory block on arrival to the recovery room. Groups were also similar in terms of blood loss, transfusion requirements, ventilatory frequency, and haemodynamic variables. According to visual analogue pain scores patients in group D experienced less pain at 15 h (P=0.02) postoperatively. Cumulative morphine consumption was also less in group D compared with group P at 6 (0.06 (0.2) vs 0.85 (1.4) mg, P=0.04) and 48 h postoperatively (10.1 (8) vs 26.2 (20) mg, P<0.01). Plasma interleukin 6 concentrations increased postoperatively to a significantly lesser extent in group D than in group P (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were less (P<0.01) in group D compared with group P at 18 h postoperatively. Sedation scores were less (P=0.03) in group D. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative administration of dexketoprofen 25 mg 8 hourly markedly improves analgesia and decreases opioid requirements (and associated adverse effects) following hip arthroplasty. It appears that this regimen decreases the postoperative pro-inflammatory response.