• Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

      Buckley, Julliette M; Wang, Jiang Huai; Redmond, H Paul; Department of Academic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, National University of , Ireland/University College Cork, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.