• Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

      Ryan, Cristin; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen; School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland. cristin.ryan@ucc.ie (2009-07)
      Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.
    • The Barthel Index: comparing inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors in an older adult rehabilitation unit.

      Hartigan, Irene; O'Mahony, Denis; Catherine McAuley School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Science Complex, University College Cork, Ireland. i.hartigan@ucc.ie (Elsevier, 2011-02)
      To ensure accuracy in recording the Barthel Index (BI) in older people, it is essential to determine who is best placed to administer the index. The aim of this study was to compare doctors' and nurses' reliability in scoring the BI.
    • A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

      Sultan, S F; Iohom, G; Saunders, J; Shorten, G; Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Ireland. sfarjads@gmail.com (2012-05)
      Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.
    • Comparison of unilateral and simultaneous bilateral measurement of the globe position, using the Hertel exophthalmometer.

      Ameri, Hossein; Fenton, Sinead; Department of Ophthalmology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      PURPOSE: To assess the effect of simultaneous measurement of the two eyes in Hertel exophthalmometry (i.e., when both readings are taken sequentially, without removing the instrument from the orbital rims) and to find out whether simultaneous measurement would influence the final reading of each eye. METHODS: In this prospective, comparative study, Hertel exophthalmometry was performed on 61 patients by two experienced observers. Only patients with no history of orbital disease were included. Three different measurements were performed on each patient by each observer. Initially, the right eye was measured separately, then the left eye was measured separately, and finally, both eyes were measured together. RESULTS: When the eyes were measured separately, in 30% of cases observers obtained equal readings in both eyes; in 47%, the difference between the two eyes was 1 mm; and in 23%, the difference was 2 mm or more. However, in simultaneous bilateral measurements, in 73% of cases, observers obtained equal readings in both eyes; in 24%, the difference between the two eyes was 1 mm; and only in 3% was the difference 2 mm or greater. Paired t tests showed that the mean difference between measurements of the two eyes was significantly smaller in simultaneous bilateral measurements (p <0.001). Interobserver variation was similar for measurements taken separately on each eye and for simultaneous bilateral measurements. CONCLUSIONS: When both eyes were measured simultaneously with the Hertel exophthalmometer, examiners were inclined to obtain similar readings in both eyes of patients with symmetrical-appearing eyes. The possible bias arising this way may reduce the reliability of Hertel exophthalmometer in relative exophthalmometry.
    • Inter-rater reliability of STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) criteria amongst physicians in six European countries.

      Gallagher, Paul; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Topinkova, Eva; Madlova, Pavla; Cherubini, Antonio; Gasperini, Beatrice; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Montero, Beatriz; Lang, Pierre Olivier; Michel, Jean-Pierre; et al. (2009-09)
    • Reflective ability and moral reasoning in final year medical students: a semi-qualitative cohort study.

      Chalmers, Patricia; Dunngalvin, Audrey; Shorten, George; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University College Cork, Wilton, Ireland. P.Chalmers@ucc.ie (2011)
      Moral reasoning and reflective ability are important concepts in medical education. To date, the association between reflective ability and moral reasoning in medical students has not been measured.