• Abnormalities of contrast sensitivity and electroretinogram following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

      Iohom, G; Gardiner, C; Whyte, A; O'Connor, G; Shorten, G; Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Department of Anaesthesia, and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of the visual pathway following sevoflurane general anaesthesia (a) exist and persist even after clinical discharge criteria have been met and (b) are associated with decreased contrast sensitivity. METHODS: We performed pattern and full-field flash electroretinograms (ERG) in 10 unpremedicated ASA I patients who underwent nitrous oxide/sevoflurane anaesthesia. ERG and contrast sensitivity were recorded preoperatively, immediately after discharge from the recovery room and 2 h after discontinuation of sevoflurane. The time at which the Post Anaesthesia Discharge Score first exceeded 9 was also noted. Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed t-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: On the full-field photopic ERG, b-wave latency was greater at each postoperative time point (31.6+/-1.1 and 30.8+/-1.1 ms) compared to preoperatively (30.1+/-1.1 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Oscillatory potential latencies were greater on discharge from the recovery room compared with preanaesthetic values (23.1+/-3.1 vs. 22.4+/-3.3 ms, P = 0.01) and returned to baseline by 2 h after emergence from anaesthesia. Also at 2 h after emergence from anaesthesia: (a) P50 latency on the pattern ERG was greater than at baseline (81.5+/-17.9 vs. 51.15+/-22.6ms, P = 0.004); (b) N95 amplitude was less compared to preanaesthetic values (2.6+/-0.5 vs. 3.3+/-0.4 microV, P = 0.003) and (c) contrast sensitivity was less compared to baseline values (349+/-153 vs. 404+/-140, P = 0.048). A positive correlation was demonstrated between contrast sensitivity and both N95 amplitude and b-wave latency (r = 0.99 and r = -0.55 at significance levels of P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative ERG abnormalities and associated decreases in contrast sensitivity are consistently present in patients who have undergone nitrous oxide/sevoflurane anaesthesia. These abnormalities persist beyond the time at which standard clinical discharge criteria have been met.
    • A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

      Sultan, S F; Iohom, G; Saunders, J; Shorten, G; Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Ireland. sfarjads@gmail.com (2012-05)
      Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.
    • Comparison of the effects of two intrathecal anaesthetic techniques for transurethral prostatectomy on haemodynamic and pulmonary function.

      Walsh, K H; Murphy, C; Iohom, G; Cooney, C; McAdoo, J; Cork University Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia, Wilton, Cork, Ireland., kenwalsh@ireland.com (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transurethral prostatectomy is routinely performed under spinal anaesthesia. This technique can cause hypotension, which is particularly undesirable in the elderly. The objective was to compare spinal anaesthesia for transurethral prostatectomy using hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (control group) and hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (limiting spread by maintaining the upright position for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg (fentanyl group) in terms of haemodynamic and pulmonary function. METHODS: Thirty ASA I-III patients were randomly selected and underwent spinal anaesthesia with either hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg (immediately positioned supine) or hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg (upright for 15 min) and fentanyl 25 microg. RESULTS: The greatest changes in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.9), ephedrine requirements (P = 0.8) and mean maximum change in forced vital capacity (P = 0.5) were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl 25 microg to bupivacaine 10 mg and limiting the spread of the block does not improve either haemodynamic or pulmonary function compared with bupivacaine 15 mg in patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy.
    • A dedicated intravenous cannula for postoperative use effect on incidence and severity of phlebitis.

      Panadero, A; Iohom, G; Taj, J; Mackay, N; Shorten, G; Specialist Registrar, Registered Nurse and Professor of Anaesthesia and Intensive, Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      A prospective, randomised, controlled clinical study was performed to compare the incidence and severity of postoperative peripheral venous thrombophlebitis associated with a single intravenous cannula used for both intra-operative and postoperative purposes, and two cannulae, one used intra-operatively and the other postoperatively. Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective surgery were studied. The technique of cannula insertion was standardised. After surgery, the cannulation sites were examined daily by a blinded investigator for the presence and severity of thrombophlebitis using the Baxter Scale. The two groups were similar in terms of age, gender, weight, type and duration of surgical procedures, and drugs and fluids administered both intra-operatively and postoperatively. The proportion of patients that developed phlebitis was significantly less in the two cannulae group (26.1%) than in the single cannula group (63.3%) (p < 0.0001). The severity of phlebitis was greater in the single cannula group than in the two cannulae group. These results indicate that the use of a dedicated cannula for postoperative use decreases the incidence and severity of postoperative, peripheral, cannula-related phlebitis.
    • The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

      Swanton, B J; Iohom, G; Wang, J H; Redmond, H P; Shorten, G D; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, , Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil's biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.
    • Effect of perioperative administration of dexketoprofen on opioid requirements and inflammatory response following elective hip arthroplasty.

      Iohom, G; Walsh, M; Higgins, G; Shorten, G; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, and National University of Ireland, Republic of Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and analgesic efficacy of perioperative dexketoprofen were evaluated. METHODS: Thirty ASA I or II patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty were randomized to one of two groups. One group (D) received dexketoprofen 25 mg tds for 24 h before and 48 h after surgery; the second group (P) received placebo tablets at equivalent times. Hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine (17.5 mg if greater than 70 kg and 15 mg if less than 70 kg) and preservative-free morphine (0.6 mg) were administered intrathecally. Postoperatively, PCA was provided (bolus morphine sulphate 1 mg; lockout 5 min; no continuous infusion). RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of age, gender, weight, height, ASA class, duration of operation, and level of sensory block on arrival to the recovery room. Groups were also similar in terms of blood loss, transfusion requirements, ventilatory frequency, and haemodynamic variables. According to visual analogue pain scores patients in group D experienced less pain at 15 h (P=0.02) postoperatively. Cumulative morphine consumption was also less in group D compared with group P at 6 (0.06 (0.2) vs 0.85 (1.4) mg, P=0.04) and 48 h postoperatively (10.1 (8) vs 26.2 (20) mg, P<0.01). Plasma interleukin 6 concentrations increased postoperatively to a significantly lesser extent in group D than in group P (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were less (P<0.01) in group D compared with group P at 18 h postoperatively. Sedation scores were less (P=0.03) in group D. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative administration of dexketoprofen 25 mg 8 hourly markedly improves analgesia and decreases opioid requirements (and associated adverse effects) following hip arthroplasty. It appears that this regimen decreases the postoperative pro-inflammatory response.
    • Perioperative anaphylaxis.

      Mertes, P M; Tajima, K; Regnier-Kimmoun, M A; Lambert, M; Iohom, G; Guéant-Rodriguez, R M; Malinovsky, J M; Service d'Anesthésie-Réanimation Chirurgicale, CHU de Nancy, Hôpital Central, 29 Avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 54035 Nancy Cedex, France. pm.mertes@chu-nancy.fr (Elsevier, 2010-07)
      The incidence of immune-mediated anaphylaxis during anesthesia ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000. Neuromuscular blocking agents are most frequently incriminated, followed by latex and antibiotics, although any drug or substance used may be a culprit. Diagnosis relies on tryptase measurements at the time of the reaction and skin tests, specific immunoglobulin E, or basophil activation assays. Treatment consists of rapid volume expansion and epinephrine administration titrated to symptom severity.
    • Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

      Iohom, G; Szarvas, S; Larney, V; O'Brien, J; Buckley, E; Butler, M; Shorten, G; Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital,, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.
    • Postoperative changes in the full-field electroretinogram following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

      Iohom, G; Whyte, A; Flynn, T; O'Connor, G; Shorten, G; Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Department of Anaesthesia, and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork, Ireland. iohom@hotmail.com (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of the visual pathway persist following general anaesthesia, even after normal clinical discharge criteria have been met. METHODS: We performed full-field flash electroretinography in the right eye of 10 unpremedicated ASA I patients who underwent N2O/sevoflurane anaesthesia. Electroretinograms were recorded preoperatively, immediately after discharge from the recovery room and 2 h after discontinuation of sevoflurane. The time at which postanaesthesia discharge score first exceeded 9 was also noted. Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed Student's t-test. RESULTS: Latency of the b-wave on the photopic electroretinogram was greater at each postoperative time point (30.5 +/- 0.9 and 30 +/- 1.3 ms), compared to preoperative values (29.2 +/- 0.8 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively). The A-B amplitude of the b-wave was less postoperatively (220.3 +/- 52.7 and 210.3 +/- 42.7 pV) compared to values before operation (248.1 +/- 57.6 microV, P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Oscillatory potential latencies were greater at each postoperative time point (21.4 +/- 0.5 and 20.8 +/- 0.6 ms) compared to before operation (20.4 +/- 0.4 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Oscillatory potential amplitudes were less at the first postoperative time point (17.5 +/- 6.1 microV), compared to preoperative values (22 +/- 6.4 microV, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative electroretinogram abnormalities are consistently present in patients who have undergone N2O/sevoflurane anaesthesia. These abnormalities persist beyond the time at which standard clinical discharge criteria have been met.
    • Postoperative changes in visual evoked potentials and cognitive function tests following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

      Iohom, G; Collins, I; Murphy, D; Awad, I; O'Connor, G; McCarthy, N; Shorten, G; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital, and National University of Ireland, Republic of Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      We tested the hypothesis that minor disturbance of the visual pathway persists following general anaesthesia even when clinical discharge criteria are met. To test this, we measured visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 13 ASA I or II patients who did not receive any pre-anaesthetic medication and underwent sevoflurane anaesthesia. VEPs were recorded on four occasions, before anaesthesia and at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia. Patients completed visual analogue scales (VAS) for sedation and anxiety, a Trieger Dot Test (TDT) and a Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) immediately before each VEP recording. These results were compared using Student's t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant. VEP latency was prolonged (P<0.001) and amplitude diminished (P<0.05) at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia, when VAS scores for sedation and anxiety, TDT, and DSST had returned to pre-anaesthetic levels.