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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Ireland: epidemiological aspects 1980-2002.Horan, Gail; Keohane, Catherine; Molloy, Sophie; Howley, Rachel; Harney, Michael; Heffernan, Josephine; McGuigan, Christopher; Hutchinson, Michael; Brett, Francesca; Farrell, Michael; et al. (2012-02-03)Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been carried out in the Republic of Ireland since 1980. Initial surveillance was passive and based on consented autopsy confirmation of CJD in patients in whom there was a high index of clinical suspicion. Since 1999, an active surveillance programme involving formal notification of all suspect CJD cases has been in place. The annual mortality rate has increased from 0.34 cases/million in 1980 to 1.27 cases/million in 2001. In all, 29 cases have been pathologically confirmed: 1 had variant CJD (vCJD), 1 had iatrogenic human growth hormone-induced CJD and 1 had fatal insomnia. Sporadic CJD (sCJD) accounted for the remainder. This paper details the change in incidence over 22 years as the surveillance programme in Ireland got under way; the increased incidence is attributed to better case ascertainment, as has occurred in other countries where active surveillance programmes have been established.