• Molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in Ireland in 2006-2009.

      Cashman, O; Collins, P J; Lennon, G; Cryan, B; Martella, V; Fanning, S; Staines, A; O'Shea, H; Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Cork Institute of Technology, Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland. (2012-02)
      SUMMARYCommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. During surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in Ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of VP7 (G1-G4 and G9) and VP4 (P[4], P[6], P[8] and P[9]) genotypes were detected. Strains G1P[8] were found to be predominant throughout the period 2006-2008, with slight fluctuations seen in the very limited samples available in 2008-2009. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis of selected strains, the G1, G3 and G9 viruses were found to contain E1 (Wa-like) NSP4 and I1 VP6 genotypes, while the analysed G2 strains possessed E2 NSP4 and I2 VP6 genotypes, a genetic make-up which is highly conserved in the major human rotavirus genogroups Wa- and Kun-like, respectively. Upon sequence analysis of the most common VP4 genotype, P[8], at least two distinct lineages were identified, both unrelated to P[8] Irish rotaviruses circulating in previous years, and more closely related to recent European humans rotaviruses. Moreover, sequence analysis of the VP7 of G1 rotaviruses revealed the onset of a G1 variant, previously unseen in the Irish population.
    • Rotavirus in Ireland: national estimates of disease burden, 1997 to 1998.

      Lynch, M; O'Halloran, F; Whyte, D; Fanning, S; Cryan, B; Glass, R I; Department of Medical Microbiology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Ireland., mlynch@cdc.gov (2012-02-03)
      BACKGROUND: We estimated the disease burden caused by rotavirus hospitalizations in the Republic of Ireland by using national data on the number of hospitalizations for diarrhea in children and laboratory surveillance of confirmed rotavirus detections. METHODS: We examined trends in diarrheal hospitalizations among children <5 years old as coded by ICD-9-CM for the period January, 1997, to December, 1998. We collated data on laboratory-confirmed rotavirus detections nationally for the same period among children <2 years old. We calculated the overall contribution of rotavirus to laboratory-confirmed intestinal disease in children <5 years old from INFOSCAN, a disease bulletin for one-third of the population. We compared data from all sources and estimated the proportion of diarrheal hospitalizations that are likely the result of rotavirus in children <5 years old. RESULTS: In children <5 years old, 9% of all hospitalizations are for diarrheal illness. In this age group 1 in 8 are hospitalized for a diarrheal illness, and 1 in 17 are hospitalized for rotavirus by 5 years of age. In hospitalized children <2 years old, 1 in 38 have a laboratory confirmed rotavirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The disease burden of rotavirus hospitalizations is higher than in other industrialized countries. Access to comprehensive national databases may have contributed to the high hospitalization rates, as well as a greater tendency to hospitalize children with diarrhea in Ireland.
    • Salmonella tel-el-kebir and terrapins.

      Lynch, M; Daly, M; O'Brien, B; Morrison, F; Cryan, B; Fanning, S; Department of Medical Microbiology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.
    • Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

      Lucey, B; Cryan, B; O'Halloran, F; Wall, P G; Buckley, T; Fanning, S; Department of Medical Microbiology, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Ireland. (2012-02-03)
      Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.