• Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

      Walsh, B H; Boylan, G B; Murray, D M; Neonatal Brain Research Group, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork, , Ireland. Bh.walsh@ucc.ie (2012-01-31)
      AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate/severe HIE than mild (16/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.
    • The use of conventional EEG for the assessment of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in the newborn: a review.

      Walsh, B H; Murray, D M; Boylan, G B; Neonatal Brain Research Group, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2011-07)
      Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among neonates around the globe. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, the need to accurately classify the severity of injury in the early neonatal period is of great importance. As clinical measures cannot always accurately estimate the severity early enough for treatment to be initiated, clinicians have become more dependent on conventional and amplitude integrated EEG. Despite this, there is currently no single agreed classification scheme for the neonatal EEG in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. In this review we discuss classification schemes of neonatal background EEG, published over the past 35 years, highlighting the urgent need for a universal visual analysis scheme.
    • The use of conventional EEG for the assessment of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in the newborn: a review.

      Walsh, B H; Murray, D M; Boylan, G B; Neonatal Brain Research Group, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork, , Ireland. (2012-01-31)
      Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among neonates around the globe. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, the need to accurately classify the severity of injury in the early neonatal period is of great importance. As clinical measures cannot always accurately estimate the severity early enough for treatment to be initiated, clinicians have become more dependent on conventional and amplitude integrated EEG. Despite this, there is currently no single agreed classification scheme for the neonatal EEG in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. In this review we discuss classification schemes of neonatal background EEG, published over the past 35 years, highlighting the urgent need for a universal visual analysis scheme.