• Blood carbon dioxide levels and adverse outcome in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

      Nadeem, Montasser; Murray, Deirdre; Boylan, Geraldine; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ryan, C Anthony; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
      We investigated pCO(2) patterns and the relationship between pCO(2) levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Blood gases during the first 72 hours of life were collected from 52 infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Moderate hypocapnia (pCO(2) <3.3 kPa), severe hypocapnia (pCO(2) <2.6 kPa), and hypercapnia (pCO(2) >6.6 kPa) were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months. Normocapnia was documented in 416/551 (75.5%) of samples and was present during the entire 72 hours in only 6 out of 52 infants. Mean (standard deviation) pCO(2) values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes: 5.43 (2.4) and 5.41 (2.03), respectively. There was no significant association between moderate hypocapnia, severe hypocapnia, or hypercapnia and adverse outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49 to 6.89; OR = 3.16, CI = 0.14 to 28.45; and OR = 1.07, CI = 0.24 to 5.45, respectively). In conclusion, only one in nine newborns had normocapnia throughout the first 72 hours. Severe hypocapnia was rare and occurred only in ventilated babies. Hypercapnia and hypocapnia in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during the first 72 hours of life were not associated with adverse outcome.
    • Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

      Nadeem, Montasser; Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ryan, Cornelius A; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2011-02)
      To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.
    • Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

      Nadeem, Montasser; Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ryan, Cornelius A; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2012-01-31)
      BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.