Determination of the efficacy and side-effect profile of lower doses of intrathecal morphine in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
AffiliationDepartment of Anaesthesia, Galway University Hospitals and National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. email@example.com.
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CitationDetermination of the efficacy and side-effect profile of lower doses of intrathecal morphine in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. 2008, 8:5 BMC Anesthesiol
Intrathecal (IT) morphine provides excellent post-operative analgesia, but causes multiple side effects including nausea and vomiting (PONV), pruritus and respiratory depression, particularly at higher doses. The lowest effective dose of spinal morphine in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty is not known.
We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and side effect profile of 100 - 300 mug IT morphine in patients undergoing elective total knee replacement in this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sixty patients over the age of 60 undergoing elective knee arthroplasty were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive spinal anaesthesia with 15 mg Bupivacaine and IT morphine in three groups: (i) 100 mug; (ii) 200 mug; and (iii) 300 mug.
Both 200 mug and 300 mug IT morphine provided comparable levels of postoperative analgesia. However, patients that received 100 mug had greater pain postoperatively, with higher pain scores and a greater requirement for supplemental morphine. There were no differences between groups with regard to PONV, pruritus, sedation, respiratory depression or urinary retention.
Both 200 mug and 300 mug provided comparable postoperative analgesia, which was superior to that provided by 100 mug IT morphine in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Based on these findings, we recommend that 200 mug IT morphine be used in these patients.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00695045.