• Academic Background of Irish Orthopaedic Trainees

      Irish Medical Journal, 2018-11
      Academic achievement may be used to distinguish between trainees in competition for training or consultant posts. This study aimed to quantify the academic achievement among orthopaedic trainees in Ireland.
    • Accessibility and screening uptake rates for gestational diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

      Cullinan, John; Gillespie, Paddy; Owens, Lisa; Dunne, Fidelma; School of Business and Economics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. john.cullinan@nuigalway.ie (2012-03)
      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is associated with a range of maternal and neonatal complications and conditions. Given increasing levels of prevalence worldwide, there are growing calls for the implementation of screening practices to identify and treat positive GDM cases. This paper uses a unique dataset to investigate the role of healthcare centre accessibility on the decision to attend for screening, employing geographic information systems, econometric and simulation techniques. We focus on the extent to which 'travel distance to screening hospital site' impacts upon the individual's screen uptake decision, whether significant geographic inequalities exist in relation to accessibility to screening, and the likely impact on uptake rates of providing screening services at a local level via primary care. Our findings have important implications for the provision of GDM screening services.
    • ACP Journal Club. An intensive lifestyle intervention increased remission from type 2 diabetes in overweight adults.

      Kyithar, Ma P; Dinneen, Sean F; Galway Roscommon University Hospitals Group, Galway, Ireland. (2013-05-21)
    • Acute calcific tendinitis of the finger--a case report.

      Ali, S N; Kelly, J L; The Department of Plastic Surgery, Stoke Mandeville Hospital Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire HP21 8AL, England. (2004-07)
      Acute calcific tendinitis of the hand is rare and often misdiagnosed as infection, fracture or periarthritis. It frequently occurs in peri-menopausal women and is caused by deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals. We describe acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion in an elderly man taking oral anticoagulants. The differential diagnoses and recommended treatment are discussed.
    • Acute childhood asthma in Galway city from 1985-2005: relationship to air pollution and climate

      Loftus, A; Loftus, BG; Muircheartaigh, I; Newell, J; Scarrott, C; Jennings, S (Irish Medical Journal, 2014-07)
      We examine the relationship of air pollution and climatic variables to asthma admission rates of children in Galway city over a 21 year period. Paediatric asthma admissions were recorded from 1985-2005, and admission rates per thousand calculated for pre-school (1-4 years), school aged (5-14 years) and all children (1-14 years) on a monthly and annual basis. These data were compared to average monthly and annual climatic variables (rainfall, humidity, sunshine, wind speed and temperature) and black smoke levels for the city. Simple correlation and Poisson Generalized Additive Models (GAM) were used. Admission rates each month are significantly correlated with smoke levels (p=0.007). Poisson GAM also shows a relationship between admissions and pollution (p=0.07). Annual smoke levels impact more on admission rates of preschoolers (p=0.04) than school age children (p=0.10). These data suggest that air pollution is an important factor in the epidemiology of acute childhood asthma.
    • Acute leukaemia: making sense of a complex blood cancer.

      Meenaghan, Teresa; Dowling, Maura; Kelly, Mary; Haematology Department, Galway University Hospital, and School of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. (2012)
      Acute leukaemia represents a diverse group of blood cancers that affect both children and adults. Treatment schedules for these haematology cancers are often prolonged, with many associated side effects and complications. Nurses caring for patients with acute leukaemia require an anticipatory approach, where care is aimed at minimizing the side effects of treatment and being constantly vigilant for any impending adverse effects. Moreover, patients require support for the psychosocial issues that can arise for patients during their illness. This article provides an overview of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Nursing considerations in the care of patients being treated for acute leukaemia are also explored.
    • Aggressive Recurrence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a patient with Fanconi’s Anaemia (FA)

      Nolan, M.; Courtney, R.; Sexton, P.; Barry, T.; McCann, P.J. (Irish Medical Journal, 2017-03)
      Fanconi’s Anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease for which the incidence of head and neck cancer can be increased 700-fold1. We report a case of a 31-year old Caucasian male with FA who initially presented in July 2007 with oral squamous cell carcinoma for which he received radical surgery and radiotherapy. He was disease-free until August 2015 when he presented with an extremely aggressive recurrence.
    • The Airtraq as a rescue airway device following failed direct laryngoscopy: a case series.

      Maharaj, C H; Costello, J F; McDonnell, J G; Harte, B H; Laffey, J G; Department of Anaesthesia, Clinical Sciences Institute, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. (2007-06)
      We report the successful use of the Airtraq as a rescue device following failed direct laryngoscopy, in patients deemed at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation. In a series of seven patients, repeated attempts at direct laryngoscopy with the Macintosh blade, and the use of manoeuvres to aid intubation, such as the gum elastic bougie placement, were unsuccessful. In contrast, with the Airtraq device, each patient's trachea was successfully intubated on the first attempt. This report underlines the utility of the Airtraq device in these patients.
    • Alcohol-attributable mortality in Ireland.

      Martin, Jennifer; Barry, Joe; Goggin, Deirdre; Morgan, Karen; Ward, Mark; O'Suilleabhain, Tadhg; Department of Public Health, Merlin Park, Galway, Ireland. Jennifer.martin@hse.ie (2010)
      The study aim was to calculate Irish alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs) and to apply these measurements to existing data in order to quantify the impact of alcohol on mortality.
    • Alcohol-related presentations to emergency departments in Ireland: a descriptive prevalence study

      McNicholl, Brian; Goggin, Deirdre; O’Donovan, Diarmuid (BMJ Open, 2018-05-24)
      To determine the prevalence of alcohol-related presentations in all 29 emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland and compare with non-alcohol-related presentations in order to identify opportunities for improvements in the quality of patient care and related data collection.
    • Amine functionalization of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix with generation 1 PAMAM dendrimer.

      Chan, Jeffrey C Y; Burugapalli, Krishna; Naik, Hemantkumar; Kelly, John L; Pandit, Abhay; National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway, Republic of Ireland. (2008-02)
      A method to functionalize cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) with free amine groups was established in an attempt to improve its potential for tethering of bioactive molecules. CEM was incorporated with Generation-1 polyamidoamine (G1 PAMAM) dendrimer by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross-linking system. The nature of incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer was evaluated using shrink temperature measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) assessment, ninhydrin assay, and swellability. The effects of PAMAM incorporation on mechanical and degradation properties of CEM were evaluated using a uniaxial mechanical test and collagenase degradation assay, respectively. Ninhydrin assay and FTIR assessment confirmed the presence of increasing free amine groups with increasing quantity of PAMAM in dendrimer-incorporated CEM (DENCEM) scaffolds. The amount of dendrimer used was found to be critical in controlling scaffold degradation, shrink temperature, and free amine content. Cell culture studies showed that fibroblasts seeded on DENCEM maintained their metabolic activity and ability to proliferate in vitro. In addition, fluorescence cell staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of cell-seeded DENCEM showed preservation of normal fibroblast morphology and phenotype.
    • The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

      McDonnell, John G; O'Donnell, Brian; Curley, Gerard; Heffernan, Anne; Power, Camillus; Laffey, John G; Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University College Hospital, Galway, Ireland. (2007-01)
      The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.
    • The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

      McDonnell, John G; Curley, Gerard; Carney, John; Benton, Aoife; Costello, Joseph; Maharaj, Chrisen H; Laffey, John G; Department of Anaesthesia, Clinical Sciences Institute, Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. (2008-01)
      The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.
    • Analysing socio-economic status of pregnant women not attending for screening for Diabetes in Pregnancy

      Owens, L; Carmody, L; Avalos, G (Irish Journal of Medical Science, 2010)
    • Anterior thigh pain - A case report.

      De Burca, Neasa; Physiotherapy Department, University Hospital Galway, Ireland. neasa.deburca1@hse.ie (2011-06)
    • Antifungal susceptibility testing and candidaemia at a tertiary referral hospital

      Connell, K; Lyons, B; Hanahoe, B (Irish Medical Journal, 2011-02)
    • Antimicrobial-resistant faecal organisms in algae products marketed as health supplements

      Ryan; Molloy, M; Evans, L; Quinn, A; Burke, E; McGrath, E; Cormican, M (2017-09)
      Dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Irish society. One of these is blue-green algae which is used with a variety health benefits in mind. A batch of Chlorella powder was found to be contaminated with Salmonella species in Ireland in 2015. This prompted additional testing of a total of 8 samples of three different products (Chlorella, Spirulina and Super Greens), for other faecal flora and antimicrobial resistance in any bacteria isolated. All 8 samples cultured enteric flora such as Enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed one isolate with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity and one with carbapenemase activity. Clinicians caring for vulnerable patients should be aware of the potential risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with these products
    • Apixaban-Associated Spontaneous Splenic Rupture - A Case Report

      Abdelhady, A; Ahmed, A; Mohamed, Y; Binchy, J; University Hospital Galway (Irish Medical Journal, 2018-07)
      A 62-year-old lady presented to The Emergency Department (ED) with one-day history of dizziness, vomiting and feeling weak. ECG showed new onset Atrial Fibrillation. Four days ago, she was referred to the Cardiology team where she underwent PCI and was discharged on Apixaban and Plavix. Two days later she represented to the ED pale and hypotensive with BP 70/50. CT-Abdomen showed a large splenic hematoma and thickening of the inferior wall of the stomach.