• Technique tips--management of a de-bonded, fixed-fixed, resin-bonded bridge.

      Alkadhimi, Aslam Fadel; Ashkanani, Mohammad; Sultan, Ahmed; Warreth, Abdulhadi; Restorative and Periodontology Division, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-09)
    • Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology

      Fleming , P; Healy, C; Bourke, B (Blackwell, Publishing, 2011-07-20)
    • Tips for splinting traumatised teeth

      Leith, Rona; O’Connell, Anne C. (Irish Dental Association, 2017-10)
      A splint is required when teeth are mobile or need to be repositioned following a traumatic injury. The aim of splinting is to stabilise the injured tooth and maintain its position throughout the splinting period, improve function and provide comfort. Current best practice guidelines from the International Association for Dental Traumatology (IADT) recommend splinting for luxated, avulsed, root fractured and traumatically loosened permanent teeth.1,2 Splinting of primary teeth is usually not feasible. In general, the prognosis of a traumatised tooth is determined by the type of injury rather than the type of splint.3 However, correct splinting is important to maximise healing of the soft and hard tissues, and prevent further injury.1-6
    • Tips for splinting traumatised teeth

      Leith, Rona; O’Connell, Anne C. (Irish Dental Association, 2017-11)
      A splint is required when teeth are mobile or need to be repositioned following a traumatic injury. The aim of splinting is to stabilise the injured tooth and maintain its position throughout the splinting period, improve function and provide comfort. Current best practice guidelines from the International Association for Dental Traumatology (IADT) recommend splinting for luxated, avulsed, root fractured and traumatically loosened permanent teeth.1,2 Splinting of primary teeth is usually not feasible. In general, the prognosis of a traumatised tooth is determined by the type of injury rather than the type of splint.3 However, correct splinting is important to maximise healing of the soft and hard tissues, and prevent further injury.1
    • Tooth agenesis in patients referred to an Irish tertiary care clinic for the developmental dental disorders.

      Hashem, Atef A; O'Connell, Brian; Nunn, June; O'Connell, Anne; Garvey, Therese; O'Sullivan, Michael; Division of Restorative Dentistry & Periodontology, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2. (2010)
      PURPOSE: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of hypodontia in Irish patients referred to a tertiary care clinic for developmental dental disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of 168 patients with hypodontia referred during the period 2002-2006 were entered in a database designed as a national record. Tooth charting was completed using clinical and radiographic examinations. The age of patients ranged from 7-50 years, with a median age of 20 years (Mean: 21.79; SD: 8.005). RESULTS: Hypodontia referrals constituted 65.5% of the total referrals. Females were more commonly affected than males with a ratio of 1.3:1. The number of referrals reflected the population density in this area; the majority were referrals from the public dental service. Mandibular second premolars were the most commonly missing teeth, followed by maxillary second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors; maxillary central incisors were the least affected. Symmetry of tooth agenesis between the right and left sides was an evident feature. Slightly more teeth were missing on the left side (n = 725) than on the right side (n = 706) and in the maxillary arch (n = 768) as compared to the mandibular arch (n = 663). Some 54% of patients had severe hypodontia with more than six teeth missing; 32% had moderate hypodontia, with four to six teeth missing. The most common pattern of tooth agenesis was four missing teeth. CONCLUSION: Hypodontia was a common presentation in a population referred to this tertiary care clinic. The pattern and distribution of tooth agenesis in Irish patients appears to follow the patterns reported in the literature.
    • Tooth agenesis in patients referred to an Irish tertiary care clinic for the developmental dental disorders.

      Hashem, Atef A; O'Connell, Brian; Nunn, June; O'Connell, Anne; Garvey, Therese; O'Sullivan, Michael; Division of Restorative Dentistry & Periodontology, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2. (Irish Dental Association, 2010-02)
      This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of hypodontia in Irish patients referred to a tertiary care clinic for developmental dental disorders.
    • Transcript profiling reveals rewiring of iron assimilation gene expression in Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis.

      Moran, Gary P; Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Ireland. gpmoran@dental.tcd.ie (FEMS yeast research, 2012-12)
      Hyphal growth is repressed in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis by the transcription factor Nrg1. Transcript profiling of a C. dubliniensis NRG1 mutant identified a common group of 28 NRG1-repressed genes in both species, including the hypha-specific genes HWP1, ECE1 and the regulator of cell elongation UME6. Unexpectedly, C. dubliniensis NRG1 was required for wild-type levels of expression of 10 genes required for iron uptake including seven ferric reductases, SIT1, FTR1 and RBT5. However, at alkaline pH and during filamentous growth in 10% serum, most of these genes were highly induced in C. dubliniensis. Conversely, RBT5, PGA10, FRE10 and FRP1 did not exhibit induction during hyphal growth when NRG1 is downregulated, indicating that in C. dubliniensis NRG1 is also required for optimal expression of these genes in alkaline environments. In iron-depleted medium at pH 4.5, reduced growth of the NRG1 mutant relative to wild type was observed; however, growth was restored to wild-type levels or greater at pH 6.5, indicating that alkaline induction of iron assimilation gene expression could rescue this phenotype. These data indicate that transcriptional control of iron assimilation and pseudohypha formation has been separated in C. albicans, perhaps promoting growth in a wider range of niches.
    • Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

      Isgró, G; Addison, O; Fleming, G J P; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2011-05)
      The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.
    • Transient and residual stresses induced during the sintering of two dentin ceramics.

      Isgró, G; Addison, O; Fleming, G J P; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. (2011-04)
      To characterize the stress induced deformation of bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) test specimens during processing to provide an insight into sintering effects and associated BFS determination.
    • Transmission of endemic ST22-MRSA-IV on four acute hospital wards investigated using a combination of spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.

      Creamer, E; Shore, A C; Rossney, A S; Dolan, A; Sherlock, O; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Sullivan, D J; Kinnevey, P M; O'Lorcain, P; Cunney, R; Coleman, D C; Humphreys, H; Department of Clinical Microbiology, Education and Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. (European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, 2012-11)
      The transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between individual patients is difficult to track in institutions where MRSA is endemic. We investigated the transmission of MRSA where ST22-MRSA-IV is endemic on four wards using demographic data, patient and environmental screening, and molecular typing of isolates. A total of 939 patients were screened, 636 within 72 h of admission (on admission) and 303 >72 h after admission, and 1,252 environmental samples were obtained. Isolates were typed by spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. A composite dendrogram generated from the three sets of typing data was used to divide isolates into 'dendrogram groups' (DGs). Ten percent of patients (92/939) were MRSA-positive; 7 % (44/636) on admission and 16 % (48/303) >72 h after admission (p = 0.0007). MRSA was recovered from 5 % of environmental specimens (65/1,252). Most isolates from patients (97 %, 85/88) and the environment (97 %, 63/65) exhibited the ST22-MRSA-IV genotype. Four DGs (DG1, DG4, DG16 and DG17) accounted for 58 % of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates from patients. Epidemiological evidence suggested cross-transmission among 44/92 patients (48 %) but molecular typing confirmed probable cross-transmission in only 11 instances (13 %, 11/88), with the majority of cross-transmission (64 %; 7/11) occurring on one ward. In the setting of highly clonal endemic MRSA, the combination of local epidemiology, PFGE, spa and dru typing provided valuable insights into MRSA transmission.
    • Treating Osteoporosis letter to the editor

      Smith, G; Stassen, L; Flint, S (Irish Medical Journal, 2009-03)
    • Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

      Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2012-11)
      Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.
    • Treatment of open apex teeth using two types of white mineral trioxide aggregate after initial dressing with calcium hydroxide in children.

      Moore, Abigail; Howley, Mary Freda; O'Connell, Anne C; Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland. abigail.moore@dental.tcd.ie (2011-06)
      The clinical and radiographic success of two types of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as apical barriers in non-vital immature permanent incisors in children was investigated.
    • Treatment planning

      Patel, S.; Duncan, H.F (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-07)
    • Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

      Higgins, J; Pinjon, E; Oltean, H N; White, T C; Kelly, S L; Martel, C M; Sullivan, D J; Coleman, D C; Moran, G P; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (Journal of dental research, 2012-01)
      Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.
    • Use of xylitol chewing gum in mothers may delay transmission of mutans streptococci to their infants.

      O'Connell, Anne C; Dublin Dental School, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. anne.oconnell@dental.tcd.ie (2011-03)
    • Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

      Macauley, Donal; Garvey, Thérèse M; Dowling, Adam H; Fleming, Garry J P; Orthodontics Unit, Division of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental University Hospital, School of Dental Science, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2012-12)
      Little's Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.
    • Using prior information from the medical literature in GWAS of oral cancer identifies novel susceptibility variant on chromosome 4--the AdAPT method.

      Johansson, Mattias; Roberts, Angus; Chen, Dan; Li, Yaoyong; Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Aswani, Niraj; Greenwood, Mark A; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Boffetta, Paolo; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Fernandez Garrote, Leticia; Talamini, Renato; Boccia, Stefania; Galan, Pilar; Vatten, Lars; Thomson, Peter; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Byrnes, Graham; Cunningham, Hamish; Brennan, Paul; Wakefield, Jon; McKay, James D; Section of Genetics, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France. johanssonm@iarc.fr (2012)
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) require large sample sizes to obtain adequate statistical power, but it may be possible to increase the power by incorporating complementary data. In this study we investigated the feasibility of automatically retrieving information from the medical literature and leveraging this information in GWAS.