• Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

      Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-11)
      We previously showed that residual treatment of dental chair unit (DCU) supply water using the electrochemically-activated solution Trustwater Ecasol™ (2.5 ppm) provided an effective long-term solution to the problem of dental unit waterline (DUWL) biofilm resulting in DUWL output water quality consistently superior to potable water.
    • Laryngotracheal presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamous differentiation: seven cases demonstrating an under-recognized diagnostic pitfall

      Toner, Mary; Banville, Niamh; Timon, Conrad I; Dublin Dental University Hospital; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland (2014-10)
    • Life course social mobility and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in men.

      Schmeisser, N; Conway, D I; McKinney, P A; McMahon, A D; Pohlabeln, H; Marron, M; Benhamou, S; Bouchardy, C; Macfarlane, G J; Macfarlane, T V; et al. (2010-03)
      The aim of this study was to explore associations between social mobility and tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), focussing on life-course transitions in social prestige (SP) based on occupational history. 1,796 cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in ten European countries were compared with 1585 controls. SP was classified by the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) based on job histories. SIOPS was categorised in high (H), medium (M) and low (L). Time weighted average achieved and transitions between SP with nine trajectories: H --> H, H --> M, H --> L, M --> H, M --> M, M --> L, L --> H, L --> M and L --> L were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [95%-CIs] were estimated with logistic regression models including age, consumption of fruits/vegetables, study centre, smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus the highest of three categories (time weighted average of SP) was 1.28 [1.04-1.56]. The distance of SP widened between cases and controls during working life. The downward trajectory H --> L gave an OR of 1.71 [0.75-3.87] as compared to H --> H. Subjects with M --> M and L --> L trajectories ORs were also elevated relative to subjects with H --> H trajectories. The association between SP and UADT is not fully explained by confounding factors. Downward social trajectory during the life course may be an independent risk factor for UADT cancers.
    • Local anaesthetic failure in endodontics

      Foot, N; Duncan, HF (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
    • Local anaesthetic failure in endodontics.

      Foot, N ; Duncan, H F; Dublin Dental University Hospital (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-07)
    • Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

      Fleischhacker, M; Pasligh, J; Moran, G; Ruhnke, M; Charitè-Universitätsmedizin Berlin Medizinische Klinik m.S. Onkologie u. Hämatologie, Mol. Biol. Labor, Alte Apotheke, CCM, Charitèplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. michael.fleischhacker@charite.de (2010-05)
      We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.
    • Looking in the mouth for Crohn's disease.

      Rowland, Marion; Fleming, Paddy; Bourke, Billy; UCD School of Medicine & Medical Science, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland. (2010-02)
      It is widely acknowledged among gastroenterologists that the oral cavity may be involved in Crohn's disease (CD). However, the specific manifestations are poorly appreciated. Although oral aphthous ulceration is probably not diagnostically useful in patients with suspected CD, disease-specific manifestations do occur and are particularly common in children presenting with CD. These manifestations can be subtle, often are subclinical, yet commonly harbor diagnostically useful material (granulomas). Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is conventionally used to describe patients with overt oral disease without obvious involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many patients with OFG have subclinical intestinal CD or will progress to develop overt intestinal CD with time. The management of severe oral disease is challenging and lacks a clear evidence base.
    • Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

      Addison, Owen; Cao, Xu; Sunnar, Parminder; Fleming, Garry J P; Biomaterials Unit, University of Birmingham School of Dentistry, St. Chad's Queensway, Birmingham B4 6NN, UK. addisono@adf.bham.ac.uk (2012-08)
      To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.
    • Maintaining dental pulp vitality

      Chong, BS; Duncan, H.F (Elsevier, 2009)
    • Management of acute dislocation of the temporomandibular joint in dental practice.

      McGoldrick, David M; Stassen, Leo F A; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (Irish Dental Association, 2010-12)
      Acute dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is a situation that, although rare, may present to the dentist in practice at any time. A number of activities, such as removal of a tooth, may cause dislocation. The event is painful and distressing for the patient, their family and the dental team. Prompt management minimises discomfort, distress and long-term morbidity to the patient. We describe the aetiology of acute dislocation and outline a number of techniques that will aid the clinican in dealing with this event.
    • Management of dental unit waterline biofilms in the 21st century.

      O'Donnell, Mary J; Boyle, Maria A; Russell, Ronnie J; Coleman, David C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland. (2011-10)
      Dental chair units (DCUs) use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces, and provide rinsewater during dental treatment. A complex network of interconnected plastic dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) supply water to these instruments. DUWLs are universally prone to microbial biofilm contamination seeded predominantly from microorganisms in supply water. Consequently, DUWL output water invariably becomes contaminated by high densities of microorganisms, principally Gram-negative environmental bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella species, but sometimes contain human-derived pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Patients and staff are exposed to microorganisms from DUWL output water and to contaminated aerosols generated by DCU instruments. A wide variety of approaches, many unsuccessful, have been proposed to control DUWL biofilm. More recently, advances in biofilm science, chemical DUWL biofilm treatment agents, DCU design, supply water treatment and development of automated DUWL biofilm control systems have provided effective long-term solutions to DUWL biofilm control.
    • The management of dry socket alveolar osteitis

      Bowe, Dr Denise C (Irish Dental Association, 2011-12)
    • Management of primary molar infraocclusion in general practice.

      McGeown, Mary; O'Connell, Anne (Irish Dental Assocation (IDA), 2014-08)
      Statement of the problem: Infraoccluded primary molars can be managed in general dental practice but clinicians need to understand when intervention is necessary.
    • Management of separated instruments

      Duncan, HF (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
    • Management of separated instruments

      Patel, S; Haapasalo, M; Duncan, H.F (Blackwell, 2009)
    • Mandibular implant-supported overdentures: attachment systems, and number and locations of implants – Part I

      Abdulhadi Warreth; Aslam Fadel Alkadhimi; Ahmed Sultan; Trinity College Dublin (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-04)
      The use of dental implants in replacing missing teeth is an integral part of restorative dental treatment. Use of conventional complete dentures is associated with several problems such as lack of denture stability, support and retention. However, when mandibular complete dentures were used with two or more implants, an improvement in the patients’ psychological and social well-being could be seen. There is general consensus that removable implant-supported overdentures (RISOs) with two implants should be considered as the first-choice standard of care for an edentulous mandible. This treatment option necessitates the use of attachment systems that connect the complete denture to the implant. Nevertheless, each attachment system has its inherent advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered when choosing a system. The first part of this article provides an overview on options available to restore the mandibular edentulous arch with dental implants. Different types of attachment systems, their features and drawbacks are also reviewed.
    • Mandibular implant-supported overdentures: attachment systems, and number and locations of implants – Part II

      Warreth, Abdulhadi; Byrne, Caroline; Fadel Alkadhimi, Aslam; Woods, Edel; Sultan, Ahmed (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-06)
      Factors to be considered when selecting an attachment type Selection of an attachment system that is suitable for a specific clinical situation is sometimes difficult. A good knowledge of the different systems and their mechanical properties, and the way in which they distribute load, is important. For instance, when short implants are used resilient attachments should be applied to ensure a degree of relief on the supporting implants. This allows denture movements to occur and enables the edentulous ridge to absorb the masticatory forces. Consequently, a significant amount of masticatory force is dissipated by the edentulous ridge. Some factors that should be identified and considered in order to obtain the best treatment option with the use of RISOs include the following:
    • Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

      Condon, M; Bready, M; Quinn, F; O'Connell, B C; Houston, F J; O'Sullivan, M; Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. (2011-07)
      This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine/lateral incisor 0·89.
    • Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

      Synodinos, Philippos N; Polyzois, Ioannis; Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2. (2010-12)
      Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist's experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.