• Knobloch syndrome: novel intra-oral findings.

      O'Connell, Anne C; Toner, Mary; Murphy, Sinead; Division of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Lincon Place, Dublin, Ireland. anne.oconnell@dental.tcd.ie (2009-05)
    • Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

      ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A; Division of Public and Child Dental Health-Dublin Dental University Hospital-Trinity College-Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin2, Ireland, rawankarmi@yahoo.com. (European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 2014-11-04)
      To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children.
    • Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

      Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-11)
      We previously showed that residual treatment of dental chair unit (DCU) supply water using the electrochemically-activated solution Trustwater Ecasol™ (2.5 ppm) provided an effective long-term solution to the problem of dental unit waterline (DUWL) biofilm resulting in DUWL output water quality consistently superior to potable water.
    • Laryngotracheal presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamous differentiation: seven cases demonstrating an under-recognized diagnostic pitfall

      Toner, Mary; Banville, Niamh; Timon, Conrad I; Dublin Dental University Hospital; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland (2014-10)
    • Life course social mobility and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in men.

      Schmeisser, N; Conway, D I; McKinney, P A; McMahon, A D; Pohlabeln, H; Marron, M; Benhamou, S; Bouchardy, C; Macfarlane, G J; Macfarlane, T V; et al. (2010-03)
      The aim of this study was to explore associations between social mobility and tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), focussing on life-course transitions in social prestige (SP) based on occupational history. 1,796 cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in ten European countries were compared with 1585 controls. SP was classified by the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) based on job histories. SIOPS was categorised in high (H), medium (M) and low (L). Time weighted average achieved and transitions between SP with nine trajectories: H --> H, H --> M, H --> L, M --> H, M --> M, M --> L, L --> H, L --> M and L --> L were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [95%-CIs] were estimated with logistic regression models including age, consumption of fruits/vegetables, study centre, smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus the highest of three categories (time weighted average of SP) was 1.28 [1.04-1.56]. The distance of SP widened between cases and controls during working life. The downward trajectory H --> L gave an OR of 1.71 [0.75-3.87] as compared to H --> H. Subjects with M --> M and L --> L trajectories ORs were also elevated relative to subjects with H --> H trajectories. The association between SP and UADT is not fully explained by confounding factors. Downward social trajectory during the life course may be an independent risk factor for UADT cancers.
    • Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis from hospitalized patients in Ireland: high prevalence of the MDR genes optrA and poxtA in isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds.

      Egan, Sarah A; Shore, Anna C; O'Connell, Brian; Brennan, Grainne I; Coleman, David C (2020-07)
      Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of the optrA, poxtA and cfr linezolid resistance genes in linezolid-resistant enterococci from Irish hospitals and to characterize associated plasmids. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four linezolid-resistant isolates recovered in 14 hospitals between June 2016 and August 2019 were screened for resistance genes by PCR. All isolates harbouring resistance genes, and 20 without, underwent Illumina MiSeq WGS. Isolate relatedness was assessed using enterococcal whole-genome MLST. MinION sequencing (Oxford Nanopore) and hybrid assembly were used to resolve genetic environments/plasmids surrounding resistance genes. Results: optrA and/or poxtA were identified in 35/154 (22.7%) isolates, the highest prevalence reported to date. Fifteen isolates with diverse STs harboured optrA only; one Enterococcus faecium isolate harboured optrA (chromosome) and poxtA (plasmid). Seven Enterococcus faecalis and one E. faecium harboured optrA on a 36 331 bp plasmid with 100% identity to the previously described optrA-encoding conjugative plasmid pE349. Variations around optrA were also observed, with optrA located on plasmids in five isolates and within the chromosome in three isolates. Nine E. faecium and 10 E. faecalis harboured poxtA, flanked by IS1216E, within an identical 4001 bp region on plasmids exhibiting 72.9%-100% sequence coverage to a 21 849 bp conjugative plasmid. E. faecalis isolates belonged to ST480, whereas E. faecium isolates belonged to diverse STs. Of the remaining 119 linezolid-resistant isolates without linezolid resistance genes, 20 investigated representatives all harboured the G2576T 23S RNA gene mutation associated with linezolid resistance. Conclusions: This high prevalence of optrA and poxtA in diverse enterococcal lineages in Irish hospitals indicates significant selective pressure(s) for maintenance.
    • Local anaesthetic failure in endodontics

      Foot, N; Duncan, HF (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
    • Local anaesthetic failure in endodontics.

      Foot, N ; Duncan, H F; Dublin Dental University Hospital (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-07)
    • Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

      Fleischhacker, M; Pasligh, J; Moran, G; Ruhnke, M; Charitè-Universitätsmedizin Berlin Medizinische Klinik m.S. Onkologie u. Hämatologie, Mol. Biol. Labor, Alte Apotheke, CCM, Charitèplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. michael.fleischhacker@charite.de (2010-05)
      We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.
    • Looking in the mouth for Crohn's disease.

      Rowland, Marion; Fleming, Paddy; Bourke, Billy; UCD School of Medicine & Medical Science, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland. (2010-02)
      It is widely acknowledged among gastroenterologists that the oral cavity may be involved in Crohn's disease (CD). However, the specific manifestations are poorly appreciated. Although oral aphthous ulceration is probably not diagnostically useful in patients with suspected CD, disease-specific manifestations do occur and are particularly common in children presenting with CD. These manifestations can be subtle, often are subclinical, yet commonly harbor diagnostically useful material (granulomas). Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is conventionally used to describe patients with overt oral disease without obvious involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many patients with OFG have subclinical intestinal CD or will progress to develop overt intestinal CD with time. The management of severe oral disease is challenging and lacks a clear evidence base.
    • Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

      Addison, Owen; Cao, Xu; Sunnar, Parminder; Fleming, Garry J P; Biomaterials Unit, University of Birmingham School of Dentistry, St. Chad's Queensway, Birmingham B4 6NN, UK. addisono@adf.bham.ac.uk (2012-08)
      To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.
    • Maintaining dental pulp vitality

      Chong, BS; Duncan, H.F (Elsevier, 2009)
    • Management of acute dislocation of the temporomandibular joint in dental practice.

      McGoldrick, David M; Stassen, Leo F A; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (Irish Dental Association, 2010-12)
      Acute dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is a situation that, although rare, may present to the dentist in practice at any time. A number of activities, such as removal of a tooth, may cause dislocation. The event is painful and distressing for the patient, their family and the dental team. Prompt management minimises discomfort, distress and long-term morbidity to the patient. We describe the aetiology of acute dislocation and outline a number of techniques that will aid the clinican in dealing with this event.
    • Management of dental unit waterline biofilms in the 21st century.

      O'Donnell, Mary J; Boyle, Maria A; Russell, Ronnie J; Coleman, David C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland. (2011-10)
      Dental chair units (DCUs) use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces, and provide rinsewater during dental treatment. A complex network of interconnected plastic dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) supply water to these instruments. DUWLs are universally prone to microbial biofilm contamination seeded predominantly from microorganisms in supply water. Consequently, DUWL output water invariably becomes contaminated by high densities of microorganisms, principally Gram-negative environmental bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella species, but sometimes contain human-derived pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Patients and staff are exposed to microorganisms from DUWL output water and to contaminated aerosols generated by DCU instruments. A wide variety of approaches, many unsuccessful, have been proposed to control DUWL biofilm. More recently, advances in biofilm science, chemical DUWL biofilm treatment agents, DCU design, supply water treatment and development of automated DUWL biofilm control systems have provided effective long-term solutions to DUWL biofilm control.
    • The management of dry socket alveolar osteitis

      Bowe, Dr Denise C (Irish Dental Association, 2011-12)
    • Management of primary molar infraocclusion in general practice.

      McGeown, Mary; O'Connell, Anne (Irish Dental Assocation (IDA), 2014-08)
      Statement of the problem: Infraoccluded primary molars can be managed in general dental practice but clinicians need to understand when intervention is necessary.
    • Management of separated instruments

      Duncan, HF (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
    • Management of separated instruments

      Patel, S; Haapasalo, M; Duncan, H.F (Blackwell, 2009)
    • Mandibular implant-supported overdentures: attachment systems, and number and locations of implants – Part I

      Abdulhadi Warreth; Aslam Fadel Alkadhimi; Ahmed Sultan; Trinity College Dublin (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-04)
      The use of dental implants in replacing missing teeth is an integral part of restorative dental treatment. Use of conventional complete dentures is associated with several problems such as lack of denture stability, support and retention. However, when mandibular complete dentures were used with two or more implants, an improvement in the patients’ psychological and social well-being could be seen. There is general consensus that removable implant-supported overdentures (RISOs) with two implants should be considered as the first-choice standard of care for an edentulous mandible. This treatment option necessitates the use of attachment systems that connect the complete denture to the implant. Nevertheless, each attachment system has its inherent advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered when choosing a system. The first part of this article provides an overview on options available to restore the mandibular edentulous arch with dental implants. Different types of attachment systems, their features and drawbacks are also reviewed.