• Identification and characterization of the multidrug resistance gene cfr in a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type 8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IVa (USA300) isolate.

      Shore, Anna C; Brennan, Orla M; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Slickers, Peter; Coleman, David C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, School of Dental Science and Dublin Dental Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-12)
      The staphylococcal cfr gene mediates resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A, a phenotype that has been termed PhLOPS(A). The cfr gene has mainly been associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from animals, and only a few cfr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been described so far. This study reports the first description of a cfr-positive MRSA isolate (M05/0060) belonging to the pandemic Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type 8 MRSA IVa/USA300 (ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300) clone. The cfr gene was detected in M05/0060 using a DNA microarray which was used to screen PVL-positive MRSA isolates for the presence of virulence genes, typing markers, and antimicrobial resistance genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that M05/0060 exhibited the cfr-associated resistance phenotype. Molecular analysis identified the presence of cfr and a second phenicol resistance gene, fexA, on a novel 45-kb conjugative plasmid, which was designated pSCFS7. Within pSCFS7, a DNA segment consisting of cfr, a truncated copy of insertion sequence IS21-558, and a region with homology to the DNA invertase gene bin3 of transposon Tn552 from Bacillus mycoides was integrated into the transposase gene tnpB of the fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. The emergence of a multidrug-resistant cfr-positive variant of ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300 is alarming and requires ongoing surveillance. Moreover, the identification of a novel conjugative plasmid carrying the cfr gene indicates the ability of cfr to spread to other MRSA strains.
    • Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

      Dowling, Adam H; Fleming, Garry J P; McGinley, Emma L; Addison, Owen; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2012-03)
      Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.
    • Incisor reduction: a provisional aesthetic technique for traumatised teeth.

      Darby, L J; O'Connell, A C; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2010-12-11)
      Patients in the mixed dentition who have suffered severe extrusion or avulsion injuries often present with difficult treatment decisions, especially when the initial emergency care has been compromised. Here we describe a well-tolerated, aesthetically acceptable and conservative method for treating such patients until a definitive treatment plan is possible.
    • Influence of doxorubicin on fluconazole susceptibility and efflux pump gene expression of Candida dubliniensis.

      Schulz, Bettina; Knobloch, Mathias; Moran, Gary P; Weber, Kai; Ruhnke, Markus; Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charit Campus Mitte, Medical Department, Division of Oncology and Haematology, Berlin, Germany. bettina_schulz@arcor.de (Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 2012-05)
      The effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the fluconazole (FLU) susceptibility of C. dubliniensis was investigated. Isolates were exposed to DOX and FLU in a chequerboard assay and resistance gene expressions were analysed after DOX exposure. The susceptibility of the yeast to FLU was decreased in the presence of DOX in the chequerboard assay with FIC indices suggesting an antagonistic effect. Gene expression analyses showed an overexpression of CdCDR2. Hence, DOX was found to have an impact on resistance mechanisms in C. dubliniensis isolates.
    • Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

      Bhamra, Gurcharn S; Fleming, Garry J P; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2009-02)
      The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.
    • Influence of LED irradiance on flexural properties and Vickers hardness of resin-based composite materials.

      Bhamra, G S; Fleming, G J P; Darvell, B W; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-02)
      To investigate the effect of irradiance through choice of LED light-curing unit (LCU) and fiber-optic tip on the mechanical properties of methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs).
    • The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation.

      Hahnel, Sebastian; Dowling, Adam H; El-Safty, Samy; Fleming, Garry J P; Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Regensburg, Germany. Sebastian.Hahnel@klinik.uni-regensburg.de (Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials, 2012-04)
      To explore experimental RBCs derived from a successful commercially available RBC (Grandio) to investigate resin monomer blend and filler parameters (volume fraction, density and diameter) on RBC performance.
    • The influence of poly(acrylic) acid number average molecular weight and concentration in solution on the compressive fracture strength and modulus of a glass-ionomer restorative.

      Dowling, Adam H; Fleming, Garry J P; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. adam.dowling@dental.tcd.ie (2011-06)
      The aim was to investigate the influence of number average molecular weight and concentration of the poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) liquid constituent of a GI restorative on the compressive fracture strength (σ) and modulus (E).
    • The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

      Fleming, Garry J P; Hooi, Paul; Addison, Owen; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. garry.fleming@dental.tcd.ie (2012-07)
      The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a 'zero' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical 'zero' resin-coating thickness.
    • Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

      McGinley, EL; Dowling, AH; Moran, GP; Fleming, GJ (British dental journal, 2013-03-22)
      'cause for concern...especially following prosthodontic or orthodontic treatment with base-metal dental casting alloys.'
    • Interaction of L-lysine and soluble elastin with the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in the context of its vascular-adhesion and tissue maturation functions.

      Olivieri, Aldo; O'Sullivan, Jeff; Fortuny, Luis Raimon Alvarez; Vives, Itziar Larrauri; Tipton, Keith F; School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. oliviera@tcd.ie (2010-04)
      The copper-containing quinoenzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.21; SSAO) is a multifunctional protein. In some tissues, such as the endothelium, it also acts as vascular-adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1), which is involved in inflammatory responses and in the chemotaxis of leukocytes. Earlier work had suggested that lysine might function as a recognition molecule for SSAO/VAP-1. The present work reports the kinetics of the interaction of L-lysine and some of its derivatives with SSAO. Binding was shown to be saturable, time-dependent but reversible and to cause uncompetitive inhibition with respect to the amine substrate. It was also specific, since D-lysine, L-lysine ethyl ester and epsilon-acetyl-L-lysine, for example, did not bind to the enzyme. The lysine-rich protein soluble elastin bound to the enzyme relatively tightly, which may have relevance to the reported roles of SSAO in maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the maturation of elastin. Our data show that lysyl residues are not oxidized by SSAO, but they bind tightly to the enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This suggests that binding in vivo of SSAO to lysyl residues in physiological targets might be regulated in the presence of H(2)O(2), formed during the oxidation of a physiological SSAO substrate, yet to be identified.
    • An introduction to single implant abutments.

      Warreth, Abdulhadi; Fesharaki, Hamed; McConville, Ryan; McReynolds, David; Dublin Dental University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. (Dental update, 2013-01)
      This article is an introduction to single implant abutments and aims to provide basic information about abutments which are essential for all dental personnel who are involved in dental implantology. Clinical Relevance: This article provides a basic knowledge of implants and implant abutments which are of paramount importance, as replacement of missing teeth with oral implants has become a well-established clinical procedure.
    • An introduction to the medically important Candida species

      Moran, G; Coleman, D; Sullivan, D (ASM Press, 2012)
    • An Introduction to the Medically Important Candida Species

      Moran, G; Coleman,D.; Sullivan, D.; Dublin Dental University Hospital (ASM Press, 2012)
    • IV access in dental practice.

      Fitzpatrick, J J; Stassen, L F A; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental Hospital, Dublin 2. (Irish Dental Association, 2009-04)
      Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.
    • IV access in dental practice.

      Fitzpatrick, J J; Stassen, L F A; Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental Hospital, Dublin 2. (2009-04)
      Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.
    • Knobloch syndrome: novel intra-oral findings.

      O'Connell, Anne C; Toner, Mary; Murphy, Sinead; Division of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Lincon Place, Dublin, Ireland. anne.oconnell@dental.tcd.ie (2009-05)
    • Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

      ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A; Division of Public and Child Dental Health-Dublin Dental University Hospital-Trinity College-Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin2, Ireland, rawankarmi@yahoo.com. (European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, 2014-11-04)
      To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children.
    • Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

      Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-11)
      We previously showed that residual treatment of dental chair unit (DCU) supply water using the electrochemically-activated solution Trustwater Ecasol™ (2.5 ppm) provided an effective long-term solution to the problem of dental unit waterline (DUWL) biofilm resulting in DUWL output water quality consistently superior to potable water.
    • Laryngotracheal presentation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with squamous differentiation: seven cases demonstrating an under-recognized diagnostic pitfall

      Toner, Mary; Banville, Niamh; Timon, Conrad I; Dublin Dental University Hospital; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Histopathology; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland; Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery; St James Hospital; Dublin Ireland (2014-10)