• E.A.O. guidelines for the use of diagnostic imaging in implant dentistry 2011. A consensus workshop organized by the European Association for Osseointegration at the Medical University of Warsaw.

      Harris, David; Horner, Keith; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Helmrot, Ebba; Benic, Goran I; Bornstein, Michael M; Dawood, Andrew; Quirynen, Marc; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. david@drdavidharris.com (2012-11)
      Diagnostics imaging is an essential component of patient selection and treatment planning in oral rehabilitation by means of osseointegrated implants. In 2002, the EAO produced and published guidelines on the use of diagnostic imaging in implant dentistry. Since that time, there have been significant developments in both the application of cone beam computed tomography as well as in the range of surgical and prosthetic applications that can potentially benefit from its use. However, medical exposure to ionizing radiation must always be justified and result in a net benefit to the patient. The as low a dose as is reasonably achievable principle must also be applied taking into account any alternative techniques that might achieve the same objectives. This paper reports on current EAO recommendations arising from a consensus meeting held at the Medical University of Warsaw (2011) to update these guidelines. Radiological considerations are detailed, including justification and optimization, with a special emphasis on the obligations that arise for those who prescribe or undertake such investigations. The paper pays special attention to clinical indications and radiographic diagnostic considerations as well as to future developments and trends.
    • Eastern Health Board Regional Orthodontic Service: an initial audit.

      Dowling, P A; Fitzpatrick, P J; Garvey, M T; McNamara, C M; Department of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental Hospital. (1997)
      This initial audit of 600 recently assessed Eastern Health Board orthodontic patients suggests that a large number of them (47 per cent) requires referral for routine restorative and preventive dental care. Closer links are needed with general dental practitioners and community dental surgeons to resolve these needs. The trend for a high referral of females and Class 11 Division 1 malocclusion type correlated well with studies in other countries.
    • Ebola virus disease: review and implications for dentistry in Ireland

      Galvin, Sheila; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire M (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-06)
      The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has developed into a global healthcare emergency with implications for all healthcare professionals. This article will review the clinical features, transmission and oral manifestations of Ebola virus infection, and discuss the implications of the current outbreak for dental practices in Ireland. The Ebola virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Filoviridae family that was first recognised after two outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo (previously Zaire) and Southern Sudan in 1976.1 The former occurred in a village near the Ebola River, after which the virus was named. Five different species of Ebola virus are now recognised: Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaire, Reston and Tai Forest. The Zaire strain remains the most lethal, with a mortality rate of 76%, and is the cause of the current, twenty-fifth Ebola epidemic.1,2 The current outbreak in West Africa, which began in Guinea in March 2014, is the largest and most complex since the virus was first recognised, involving more infections and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined, and involving capital cities and major urban centres for the first time. To date, there have been 25,855 cases and 10,717 deaths3,4 (correct on April 17, 2015), with the vast majority of cases in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. There have also been cases in Nigeria, Senegal, Mali, Spain, the United States and United Kingdom
    • The effect of permanent grafting materials on the preservation of the buccal bone plate after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the dog.

      Bashara, Haitham; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar; Polyzois, Ioannis; Lyngstadaas, Staale Petter; Renvert, Stefan; Claffey, Noel; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-08)
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bone substitute system (Natix(®)), consisting of porous titanium granules (PTG) and a bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss(®)), on hard tissue remodelling following their placement into fresh extraction sockets in dogs.
    • The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

      Creamer, Eilish; Dolan, Anthony; Sherlock, Orla; Thomas, Toney; Walsh, John; Moore, Joan; Smyth, Edmond; O'Neill, Eoghan; Shore, Anna; Sullivan, Derek; et al. (2010-04)
      (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.
    • The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study.

      Canning, Tom; O'Connell, Brian C; Houston, Frank; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. (2011-01)
      During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings.
    • Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

      Mohamed, Seif; Polyzois, Ioannis; Renvert, Stefan; Claffey, Noel; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin, Ireland. (2010-05)
      This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.
    • An effective bleaching technique for non-vital, discoloured teeth in children and adolescents.

      Leith, Rona; Moore, Abigail; O'Connell, Anne C; Department of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Dublin. rona.leith@dental.tcd.ie (Irish Dental Association, 2009-08)
      Discolouration of a permanent incisor may have a significant social impact on children and adolescents. Intervention should be minimally destructive of tooth tissue and should not compromise future restorative options. This paper reviews the technique of inside/outside bleaching, and proposes it as an efficient, effective and acceptable method for use in the compliant younger patient with an unaesthetic non-vital tooth.
    • An effective bleaching technique for non-vital, discoloured teeth in children and adolescents.

      Leith, Rona; Moore, Abigail; O'Connell, Anne C; Department of Public and Child Dental Health, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Dublin. rona.leith@dental.tcd.ie (2009-08)
      Discolouration of a permanent incisor may have a significant social impact on children and adolescents. Intervention should be minimally destructive of tooth tissue and should not compromise future restorative options. This paper reviews the technique of inside/outside bleaching, and proposes it as an efficient, effective and acceptable method for use in the compliant younger patient with an unaesthetic non-vital tooth.
    • Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

      McGinley, Emma Louise; Coleman, David C; Moran, Gary P; Fleming, Garry J P; Materials Science Unit, Division of Oral Bioscience, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. emmalouise.mcginley@dental.tcd.ie (2011-07)
      To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.
    • Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit.

      Brennan, Gráinne I; Shore, Anna C; Corcoran, Suzanne; Tecklenborg, Sarah; Coleman, David C; O'Connell, Brian; National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St. James’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. gbrennan@stjames.ie (2012-03)
      Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions.
    • Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

      Kinnevey, Peter M; Shore, Anna C; Brennan, Grainne I; Sullivan, Derek J; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Slickers, Peter; Coleman, David C; Microbiology Research Unit, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. (2013-01)
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.
    • Enhanced discrimination of highly clonal ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IV isolates achieved by combining spa, dru, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data.

      Shore, Anna C; Rossney, Angela S; Kinnevey, Peter M; Brennan, Orla M; Creamer, Eilish; Sherlock, Orla; Dolan, Anthony; Cunney, Robert; Sullivan, Derek J; Goering, Richard V; et al. (2010-05)
      ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) is endemic in Irish hospitals and is designated antibiogram-resistogram type-pulsed-field group (AR-PFG) 06-01. Isolates of this highly clonal strain exhibit limited numbers of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and spa types. This study investigated whether combining PFGE and spa typing with DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing) would improve isolate discrimination. A total of 173 MRSA isolates recovered in one Irish hospital during periods in 2007 and 2008 were investigated using antibiogram-resistogram (AR), PFGE, spa, dru, and SCCmec typing. Isolates representative of each of the 17 pulsed-field group 01 (PFG-01) spa types identified underwent multilocus sequence typing, and all isolates were ST22. Ninety-seven percent of isolates (168 of 173) exhibited AR-PFG 06-01 or closely related AR patterns, and 163 of these isolates harbored SCCmec type IVh. The combination of PFGE, spa, and dru typing methods significantly improved discrimination of the 168 PFG-01 isolates, yielding 65 type combinations with a Simpson's index of diversity (SID) of 96.53, compared to (i) pairwise combinations of spa and dru typing, spa and PFGE typing, and dru and PFGE typing, which yielded 37, 44, and 43 type combinations with SIDs of 90.84, 91.00, and 93.57, respectively, or (ii) individual spa, dru, and PFGE typing methods, which yielded 17, 17, and 21 types with SIDs of 66.9, 77.83, and 81.34, respectively. Analysis of epidemiological information for a subset of PFG-01 isolates validated the relationships inferred using combined PFGE, spa, and dru typing data. This approach significantly enhances discrimination of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates and could be applied to epidemiological investigations of other highly clonal MRSA strains.
    • Evaluation of early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold. An experimental study in Wistar rats.

      Alhag, Mohamed; Farrell, Eric; Toner, Mary; Claffey, Noel; Lee, T Clive; O'Brien, Fergal; School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. alhagm@tcd.ie (2011-03)
      Tissue engineering using cell-seeded biodegradable scaffolds offers a new bone regenerative approach that might circumvent many of the limitations of current therapeutic modalities. The aim of this experiment was to study the early healing events around mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.
    • Evaluation of the ability of collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds with or without mesenchymal stem cells to heal bone defects in Wistar rats.

      Alhag, M; Farrell, E; Toner, M; Lee, T Clive; O'Brien, F J; Claffey, N; School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. alhagm@tcd.ie (2012-03)
      The aim of this experiment was to examine the capacity of collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, with or without mesenchymal stem cells, to satisfactorily repair a 5-mm rat calvarial defect.
    • Evaluation of vaporized hydrogen peroxide, Citrox and pH neutral Ecasol for decontamination of an enclosed area: a pilot study.

      Galvin, S; Boyle, M; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Creamer, E; O'Gara, J P; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Humphreys, H; Department of Clinical Microbiology, Education and Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. sandragalvin@rcsi.ie (2012-01)
      Hydrogen peroxide, Ecasol and Citrox aerosols were each tested for their ability to kill a range of nosocomial pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide had the broadest microbicidal activity but operational issues limit its use. Ecasol was effective against all micro-organisms, except Clostridium difficile, while Citrox aerosols were not effective against Gram-negative bacilli.
    • The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

      Borecká-Melkusová, Silvia; Moran, Gary P; Sullivan, Derek J; Kucharíková, Sona; Chorvát, Dusan; Bujdáková, Helena; Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia. borecka@fns.uniba.sk (2009-03)
      The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.