• Biofilm problems in dental unit water systems and its practical control.

      Coleman, D C; O'Donnell, M J; Shore, A C; Russell, R J; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. david.coleman@dental.tcd.ie (2009-05)
      Dental chair units (DCUs) contain integrated systems that provide the instruments and services for a wide range of dental procedures. DCUs use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces during dental treatment. Water is supplied to these instruments by a network of interconnected narrow-bore (2-3 mm) plastic tubes called dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). Many studies over the last 40 years demonstrated that DUWL output water is often contaminated with high densities of micro-organisms, predominantly Gram-negative aerobic heterotropic environmental bacteria, including Legionella and Pseudomonas species. Untreated DUWLs host biofilms that permit micro-organisms to multiply and disperse through the water network and which are aerosolized by DCU instrument use, thus exposing patients and staff to these micro-organisms, to fragments of biofilm and bacterial endotoxins. This review concentrates on how practical developments and innovations in specific areas can contribute to effective DUWL biofilm control. These include the use of effective DUWL treatment agents, improvements to DCU supply water quality, DCU design changes, development of automated DUWL treatment procedures that are effective at controlling biofilm in the long-term and require minimal human intervention, are safe for patients and staff, and which do not cause deterioration of DCU components following prolonged use.
    • A centralised, automated dental hospital water quality and biofilm management system using neutral Ecasol maintains dental unit waterline output at better than potable quality: a 2-year longitudinal study.

      O'Donnell, M J; Boyle, M; Swan, J; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2009-10)
      This centralised and automated water treatment and biofilm management system consistently maintains DUWL output water at better than potable quality simultaneously in a large number of DCUs over the long-term.
    • Control of bacterial contamination of washbasin taps and output water using Ecasol: a one-year study.

      Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Miller, A; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Dublin Dental University School and Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. (2012-04)
      Contaminated washbasin taps and output water are an important source of bacteria that may cause nosocomial infection. A five-week pretreatment study of hot and cold water from 15 washbasin taps at Dublin Dental Hospital showed consistently heavy contamination by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: mean bacterial counts of 482.5 [standard deviation (SD) 293] colony-forming units (cfu)/mL and 5022 (SD 4322) cfu/mL, respectively.
    • Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

      Rentzia, A; Coleman, D C; O'Donnell, M J; Dowling, A H; O'Sullivan, M; Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2011-02)
      This study investigated the antibacterial efficacy and effect of 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA(®)) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of gypsum casts retrieved from an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.
    • Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

      Rentzia, A; Coleman, D C; O'Donnell, M J; Dowling, A H; O'Sullivan, M; Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2011-02)
      This study investigated the antibacterial efficacy and effect of 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA(®)) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of gypsum casts retrieved from an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.
    • Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

      Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Coleman, D C; Microbiology Research Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2, Ireland. (2010-11)
      Ecasol present as a residual disinfectant in DUWL output water is very unlikely to have adverse effects on human oral tissues at levels effective in maintaining DUWL output water quality at better than potable standard water quality.