• A national study on the attitudes of Irish dental faculty members to faculty development.

      O'Sullivan, E M; Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Cork University Dental School & Hospital, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. eleanor.osullivan@ucc.ie (2010-02)
      This study indicates that targeted educational interventions, with content and delivery tailored to the specific needs of recipients, are most likely to succeed.
    • NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.

      Ríordáin, R Ní; McCreary, C; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. richeal.niriordain@ucc.ie (2009-03-28)
      To enable patient re-education regarding antibiotic prophylaxis, dental practitioners must keep abreast of changes to current guidelines and understand the rationale driving these changes. Difficulties arise for dental practitioners when there is no national statutory body endorsing such guidelines, particularly now that the guidelines in relation to antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry are so different.
    • Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

      Geary, Julian Lindsay; Clifford, Thomas Joseph; Kinirons, Martin James; Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, BT12 6BA, UK. l.geary@qub.ac.uk (2009)
      Within the limitations of this study, the modification of the occlusal surface made by flat grinding reduced the arch separation in eccentric movements and increased the opposing tooth contacts in custom-made mouthguards. This may contribute to increased comfort, compliance and the protective effect of these appliances thus resulting in a reduction of injuries to the teeth, arches and soft tissues.
    • Oral cancer--current knowledge, practices and implications for training among an Irish general medical practitioner cohort.

      Ni Riordain, Richeal; McCreary, Christine; Oral Medicine Unit, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. richeal.niriordain@ucc.ie (2009-11)
      This study investigated the current knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs) in Ireland regarding the examination of the oral cavity and the detection of oral malignancy and the training they had received at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and since commencing in practice. A questionnaire survey of GMPs in Ireland was conducted. One hundred and fifty four (65.3%) of the practitioners reported regularly examining the oral mucosa of their patients. Almost half of these (n=68) further qualified this response by stating that they only examined the oral mucosa if the patient reported pain in this area or if the patient specifically requested an oral examination for some reason. Eighty one (34.3%) practitioners surveyed felt confident in their ability to detect oral malignancies with the remaining two thirds unsure of whether they would be able to detect oral cancer. There was a significant association between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on examination of the oral cavity and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=4.811, p<0.05]. A statistically significant association was also found between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the diagnosis of oral malignant disease and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=6.194, p<0.05]. In conclusion the level of knowledge of Irish general medical practitioners needs to be addressed with appropriate initiatives both at undergraduate level and via CME.
    • Oral medicine and the elderly.

      McCreary, Christine; Ní Ríordáin, Richeal; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2011-03-15)
      A focus often exists in dental practice on the maintenance and management of the dentition and the periodontium, however, conditions of the oral mucosa and orofacial pain can cause significant problems for older patients. Oral mucosal conditions are more prevalent in older patients and many orofacial pain disorders, such as burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia, are more common in patients over the age of 50 years. Although these conditions may not be routinely managed in general practice, identification of these patients in primary care and appropriate referral will lead to more prompt and effective treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental practitioners need to be able to identify what is considered to be within the normal physiological limits of the ageing oral tissue and hence what is abnormal and requires further investigation to facilitate appropriate referral.
    • Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes: is oxidative stress the mechanistic link?

      Allen, E M; Matthews, J B; O'Connor, R; O'Halloran, D; Chapple, I L C; Dept. of Restorative Dentistry, Cork University Dental School & Hospital, Cork, Ireland. e.allen@ucc.ie (2009-05)
      Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease initiated by bacteria which has an increased prevalence and severity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recent studies indicate that the co-morbid presence of periodontitis can, in turn, adversely affect diabetic status and the treatment of periodontitis can lead to improved metabolic control in diabetes patients. Current evidence points to a bidirectional interrelationship between diabetes and inflammatory periodontitis. The importance of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and periodontitis has recently received attention. Given the bidirectional relationship between these two conditions, this review discusses the potential synergistic interactions along the oxidative stress-inflammation axis common to both type 2 diabetes and periodontitis, and the implications of this relationship for diabetic patients.
    • A qualitative study of trends in patient preferences for the management of the partially dentate state.

      Cronin, Mary; Meaney, Sarah; Jepson, Nicholas J A; Allen, P Finbarr; Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Brookfield, Cork, Ireland. (2009-06)
      The evidence of a cohort effect within this study in relation to higher patient expectations indicates that both contemporary and future patients are likely to seek a service based on conservation and restoration of missing teeth by fixed prostheses.
    • Stability of dental implants in grafted bone in the anterior maxilla: longitudinal study.

      Al-Khaldi, Nasser; Sleeman, Duncan; Allen, Finbarr; Private Dental Practice, Muscat, Oman. (2010-06-06)
      We aimed to assess the stability over time of dental implants placed in grafted bone in the maxilla using resonance frequency analysis, and to compare the stability of implants placed in grafted and non-grafted bone. Data were collected from 23 patients (15 test and 8 controls) in whom 64 implants (Brånemark system, Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) were placed in accordance with the two-stage surgical protocol. In the test group 36 fixtures were placed in grafted bone, and in the control group 28 fixtures were placed in non-grafted bone. Resonance frequency analysis was used to assess the test sites at implant placement and abutment connection. The mean (SD) implant stability quotient (ISQ) for test sites at the time of implant placement was 61.91 (6.68), indicating excellent primary stability, and was 63.53 (5.76) at abutment connection. ISQ values at abutment connection were similar for test and control sites. Implants placed in grafted bone compared favourably with those in non-grafted bone, and showed excellent stability.
    • State-of-the-art techniques in operative dentistry: contemporary teaching of posterior composites in UK and Irish dental schools.

      Lynch, C D; Frazier, K B; McConnell, R J; Blum, I R; Wilson, N H F; Restorative Dentistry, Tissue Engineering & Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XY. lynchcd@cardiff.ac.uk (2010-08-14)
      The teaching of posterior composites in the Irish and UK dental schools has substantially increased over the last five years. Dental students in these schools often gain more experience in the placement of posterior composites than amalgam. However, practice trends indicate that a majority of GDPs continue to place amalgam in preference to composite, thereby suggesting a source of tension as current dental students emerge into the dental workforce over the coming years. There is, as a consequence, a challenge to the dental profession and its funding agencies in the UK to encourage more of a shift towards the minimally interventive use of composite systems in the restoration of posterior teeth, in particular among established practitioners.
    • A study of patient attitudes towards fasting prior to intravenous sedation for dental treatment in a dental hospital department.

      McKenna, Gerald; Manton, Sarah; Neilson, Avril; Cork University Dental Hospital, Cork, Republic of Ireland. g.mckenna@ucc.ie (2010-01)
      The extended fasting regimen prior to intravenous sedation appeared to affect patients' wellbeing, as the majority reported adverse symptoms.
    • A study of the management of 55 traumatically intruded permanent incisor teeth in children.

      Stewart, C; Dawson, M; Phillips, J; Shafi, I; Kinirons, M; Welbury, R; Dept Paediatric Dentistry, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2009-01)
      There was a statistically significant difference between the repositioning decisions with a more conservative approach for teeth with immature apices (P = 0.0009). Apical completion was a significant predictor of earlier pulp extirpation (p=0.01).
    • Supporting career choices in dentistry

      Curtin, S; Ray, NJ; McKenna, G (Irish Dental Association, 2012-02)
      Abstract of Article
    • Systemic diseases and the elderly.

      McCreary, Christine; Ni Riordáin, Richeal; Oral Medicine Unit, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2010-11)
      Although systemic diseases can occur at any age, they are more common in older patients. Accurate and detailed medical and drug histories are important in dental practice as many conditions and medications can influence oral health and dental care in patients. Not only can these conditions influence patient care in the surgery and oral hygiene at home, but access to dental services may also be adversely affected. Clinical Relevance: The systemic diseases can impact upon oral care or can have oral manifestations. Many of the pharmacological interventions prescribed for chronic conditions can have multiple and diverse adverse effects on the oral environment.
    • Technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and the associated retention of root-filled teeth: a clinical follow-up study over a 5-year period.

      Burke, F M; Lynch, C D; Ní Ríordáin, R; Hannigan, A; University Dental School & Hospital, University College, Cork, Ireland. (2009-07)
      The aim of this study was to examine the technical quality of root canal fillings performed in a dental school and to investigate the associated effect on the survival/retention of root-filled teeth. A review of case notes of patients who had root canal treatment performed in the department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland was carried out. The technical quality of the root canal filling was described according to its relationship with the radiographic apex on a post-treatment radiograph. Tooth status at review was defined as 'tooth present' or 'tooth absent' based on the presence or absence of the root-filled tooth recorded in the treatment records at a review appointment following placement of the root canal filling. One hundred and forty-eight teeth (129 patients) were considered. Of these, 69.6% (n = 103) were of acceptable technical quality, 23.6% (n = 35) were under-extended, and 6.8% (n = 10) were overextended. An increased number of intra-treatment radiographs to confirm the relationship of the canal preparation to the radiographic apex and operator experience were significant predictors of adequate root canal fillings (P < 0.05). Eighty-three per cent (n = 123) of teeth were present at a review appointment held an average of 40 months following completion of treatment (12-60 months). The technical quality of the root canal filling was the only significant factor in predicting tooth survival (P < 0.05), while the presence of pre-treatment periapical pathology had no significant effect on survival of the root-filled tooth. Determination and maintenance of the working length of the canal system is an important feature in producing good quality root canal fillings, which in turn, is associated with increased likelihood of survival/retention of root-filled teeth.
    • Three-Dimensional Assessment of Early Surgical Outcome in Repaired Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Part 1. Nasal changes.

      Ayoub, Ashraf; Garrahy, Ann; Millett, Declan; Bowman, Adrian; Siebert, Paul; Miller, James; Ray, Arup; Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. (2010-08-11)
      Abstract Objective: To evaluate 3D nasal morphology following primary reconstruction in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate relative to contemporaneous non-cleft data Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study. Setting: Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, Faculty of Medicine, Glasgow University Patients and Participants: Two groups of 3-year old children (21 with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 96 controls) with facial images taken using a 3D vision based capture technique. Methods: 3D images of the face were reflected so the cleft was on the left side to create a homogenous group for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional co-ordinates of anthropometric landmarks were extracted from facial images by a single operator. A set of linear measurements was utilised to compare cleft and control subjects on right and left sides, adjusting for sex differences Results: the mean nasal base width and the width of the nostril floor on right and left sides differed significantly between control and Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) groups. The measurements were greater in UCLP children. The difference in the mean nasal height and mean nasal projection between the groups were not statistically significant. Mean columellar lengths were different between the left and right sides in UCLP cases. Conclusions: There were significant nasal deformities following the surgical repair of UCLP. Keywords: child, cleft lip and palate, three-dimensional imaging.
    • Three-Dimensional Assessment of Early Surgical Outcome in Repaired Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Part 2. Lip Changes.

      Ayoub, Ashraf; Garrahy, Ann; Millett, Declan; Bowman, Adrian; Siebert, Paul; Miller, James; Ray, Arup; Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. (2010-09-08)
      Abstract Objective: To evaluate 3D lip morphology, following primary reconstruction in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) relative to contemporaneous non-cleft data Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study Setting: Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, University of Glasgow, The UK. Patients and Participants: Two groups of 3-year old children (21 with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 96 controls) with facial images taken using a 3D vision based capture technique. Methods: 3D images of the face were reflected so the cleft was on the left side to create a homogenous group for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional co-ordinates of anthropometric landmarks were extracted from facial images. 3D generalised Procustes superimposition was employed and a set of linear measurements were utilised to compare between cleft and control subjects for right and left sides, adjusting for sex differences. Results: Christa philteri on both the cleft and non-cleft sides were displaced laterally and posteriorly; there was also a statistically significant increase in philtrum width. No significant differences between cleft and control regarding the cutaneous height of the upper lip. The lip in the cleft cases was flatter than in the non-cleft cases with less prominence of labialis superioris. Conclusions: Stereophotogrammetry allows detection of residual dysmorphology following cleft repair. There was significant increase of the philtrum width. The lip appeared flatter and more posterior displaced in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) cases compared with control. Keywords: child, cleft lip and palate, lip repair, three-dimensional imaging.
    • Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

      Stewart, Chris; Dept Paediatric Dentistry, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland. (2009)
      There is clinical evidence for an association between pulp extirpation performed after 14 days following replantation and the development of inflammatory resorption. This investigation supports the current clinical guidelines for pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation.
    • Tooth size discrepancies in Irish orthodontic patients among different malocclusion groups.

      O'Mahony, Gerard; Millett, Declan T; Barry, Mark K; McIntyre, Grant T; Cronin, Michael S; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Ireland. (2011-01)
      The prevalence of anterior tooth size discrepancies in this sample of Irish orthodontic patients was 37.9%. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of mean overall TSDs with regard to malocclusion or gender. In the male group, the mean anterior tooth size ratio was higher in Class III and in Class II division 2 malocclusion than in Class II division 1 and higher in Class II division 2 malocclusion than in Class I malocclusion.
    • UK National Clinical Guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry: treatment of traumatically intruded permanent incisor teeth in children.

      Albadri, S; Zaitoun, H; Kinirons, M J; School of Dentistry, University of Liverpool, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. (2010-11)
    • Unilateral coronoid hyperplasia associated with early childhood facial trauma: a case presentation

      Sleeman, Duncan; Warren, Emma; McAuliffe, Micheal (Irish Dental Association, 2012-08)