• Career choices on graduation a study of recent graduates from University College Cork.

      McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis; School of Dentistry, University College Cork. g.mckenna@ucc.ie (Irish Dental Association, 2009-12)
      Irish dental graduates are eligible to enter general dental practice immediately after qualification. Unlike their United Kingdom counterparts, there is no requirement to undertake vocational training (VT) or any pre-registration training. VT is a mandatory 12-month period for all UK dental graduates who wish to work within the National Health Service. It provides structured, supervised experience in training practices and through organised study days.
    • The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

      James, Patrice; Parnell, C; Whelton, H; Oral Health Services Research Centre, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. p.james@ucc.ie (2010)
      Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.
    • Case report: Presentation of lacrimo-auriculodento- digital (LADD) syndrome in a young female patient.

      McKenna, G J; Burke, F M; Mellan, K; Dept. Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. g.mckenna@ucc.ie (2009-11)
      BACKGROUND: Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome (OMIM #149730) is an autosomal-dominant congenital disorder that can be caused by heterozygous mutations in the tyrosine kinase domains of the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor receptors 2 (FGFR2) and 3 (FGFR3), and has been found in association with a mutation in the FGF10 gene, which encodes an Fgfr ligand. Clinical signs vary, but the condition is characterised by involvement of the lacrimal and salivary systems, cup-shaped ears, hearing loss and dental abnormalities. Additional features may include involvement of the hands and feet with other body systems particularly the kidneys. CASE REPORT: Previous literature on the subject has been reviewed and this case is the first presentation of LADD syndrome in the Republic of Ireland, as a sporadic case in a 12-year-old girl who exhibited a range of dental and digital anomalies. TREATMENT: Her general medical practitioner managed her medical care whilst her oral care necessitated a multidisciplinary approach involving restorative and orthodontic elements. FOLLOW-UP: The initial restorative phase of treatment has successfully improved the appearance of the patient's anterior teeth using direct resin composite build-ups.
    • Case study: limitations of panoramic radiography in the anterior mandible.

      Walker, Cameron; Thomson, Donald; McKenna, Gerald; Dundee Dental Hospital, Park Place, Dundee, UK. (2009-12)
      Dental Panoramic Tomography (DPT) is a widely used and valuable examination in dentistry. One area prone to artefacts and therefore misinterpretation is the anterior region of the mandible. This case study discusses a periapical radiolucency related to lower anterior teeth that is discovered to be a radiographic artefact. Possible causes of the artefact include a pronounced depression in the mental region of the mandible or superimposition of intervertebral spaces. Additional limitations of the DPT image include superimposition of radio-opaque structures, reduced image detail compared to intra-oral views and uneven magnification. These problems often make the DPT inappropriate for imaging the anterior mandible. Clinical Relevance: Panoramic radiography is often unsuitable for radiographic examination of the anterior mandible.
    • Catecholamine-o-methyltransferase polymorphisms are associated with postoperative pain intensity.

      Lee, Peter J; Delaney, Patrick; Keogh, John; Sleeman, Duncan; Shorten, George D; Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University College Cork, Ireland. peterjohnlee@hotmail.com (2011-02)
      single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT), μ-opioid receptor and GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) have been linked to acute and chronic pain states. COMT polymorphisms are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and a chronic pain state. No such association has been identified perioperatively. We carried out a prospective observational clinical trial to examine associations between these parameters and the development of postoperative pain in patients undergoing third molar (M3) extraction.
    • Clinical effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of irradiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review.

      O'Sullivan, E M; Higginson, I J; Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, UCC, Wilton, Cork 9999, Ireland. eleanor.osullivan@ucc.ie (2010-12)
      Irradiation-induced xerostomia seriously reduces quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Anecdotal evidence suggests that acupuncture may be beneficial.
    • Clinical experiences of undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland.

      Stewart, Christopher J; Moloney, Elizabeth J; Kinirons, Martin J; Department of Oral Health and Development, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. c.stewart@ucc.ie (2010-03)
      The objectives of this study were to evaluate the number and range of clinical procedures completed by undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry in Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland, and to compare the number of procedures undertaken with the subsequent examination scores. The work comprised a retrospective audit of clinical logbooks for all of the undergraduate dental students in one cohort through their fourth and fifth clinical years between 2004 and 2006. Thirty-four quantitative logbooks were audited. Students had seen a total of 1,031 patients, and each student had completed a full course of dental treatment for an average of twenty-two children. Students completed means of 30.2 restorative procedures for children, fourteen in deciduous dentition (range six to twenty-eight), and seventeen in permanent dentition (range seven to twenty-eight). Continuity of education and care (measured through children having their treatment fully completed by the same student) was 72 percent. A moderate positive correlation between levels of clinical experience and exam score was identified. All students gained experience in management of child patients with students providing care for an average of thirty children and a minimum of nineteen.
    • The clinical relevance of orthognathic surgery on quality of life

      Murphy, C.; Kearns, G.; Sleeman, D.; Cronin, M.; Allen, P.F. (2012-09-19)
    • A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology.

      Sanders, A E; Slade, G D; John, M T; Steele, J G; Suominen-Taipale, A L; Lahti, S; Nuttall, N M; Allen, P Finbarr; The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, NC 27599, USA. anne_saunders@dentistry.unc.edu (2009-07)
      The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens.
    • The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.

      O'Sullivan, Eleanor M; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork. eleanor.osullivan@ucc.ie (Irish Dental Association, 2009-12)
      This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored.
    • Demographics of implant placement and complications of a patient subgroup in a dental hospital population.

      Brennan, Maire; Houston, Frank; O'Sullivan, Michael; O'Connell, Brian; Department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork. (Irish Dental Association, 2010-05)
      Little has been reported about the demographics of implant placement in the Irish population and the complications that occur. This is important in terms of service planning and providing patient information.
    • Dental patients' use of the Internet.

      Ní Ríordáin, R; McCreary, C; Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. richeal.nirordain@ucc.ie (2009-12-19)
      To determine the use of the Internet by patients attending a range of dental clinics to search for information regarding dental procedures, and also to investigate their interest in online dental consultations and 'dental tourism'.
    • Dentists’ requirements for continuing professional development in Ireland. A pilot study conducted at University College Cork

      Stewart, Christopher; Kinirons, Martin (Journal of the Irish Dental Association, 2015-02)
      This research was a pilot study of the ways in which the continuing professional development (CPD) needs of dentists could be provided. A web-based questionnaire facility was used to enable dental practitioners to register their level of interest in a range of clinical topics presented as CPD lectures and practical courses to provide hands-on experience. The findings were reviewed with reference to the available literature on dental CPD. The study sought to inform development of dental CPD programmes.
    • Determining the minimally important difference for the Oral Health Impact Profile-20.

      Allen, P Finbarr; O'Sullivan, Maeve; Locker, David; Department of Restorative Dentistry, Cork University Dental School & Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. f.allen@ucc.ie (2009-04)
      In the context of clinical trials, measurement of change is critical. The aim of this study was to determine the minimally important difference (MID) for the Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) when used with partially dentate patients undergoing treatment that included the provision of removable partial dentures. In a prospective clinical trial, 51 consecutive patients were provided with removable partial dentures. In addition to demographic and dental status data, patients completed an OHIP-20 prior to treatment. One month postoperatively, patients completed a post-treatment OHIP-20 and a global transition scale. Domains assessed in the global transition scale were appearance, ability to chew food, oral comfort, and speech. The MID for the OHIP-20 was calculated using the anchor-based approach. From the initial sample of 51 patients, 44 completed post-treatment questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Change scores in the four transition domains indicated that new dentures had a positive impact in the majority of subjects, especially in perceived impact on chewing and appearance. The study provided a guideline as to what constitutes the MID for the OHIP-20. This benchmark can be used when interpreting the impact of clinical intervention for replacing missing teeth and for power calculation in statistical analyses.
    • Effect of pre-heating on the viscosity and microhardness of a resin composite.

      Lucey, S; Lynch, C D; Ray, N J; Burke, F M; Hannigan, A; Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland. (2010-04)
      The effect of pre-heating resin composite on pre-cured viscosity and post-cured surface hardness was evaluated. Groups of uncured specimens were heated to 60 degrees C and compared with control groups (24 degrees C) with respect to viscosity and surface hardness. Mean (SD) viscosities of the pre-heated specimens (n = 15) were in the range of 285 (13)-377 (11) (Pa) compared with 642 (35)-800 (23) (Pa) at ambient temperature. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Mean (SD) Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the pre-heated group (n = 15) was 68.6 (2.3) for the top surface and 68.7 (1.8) for the bottom surface measured at 24 h post curing (specimen thickness = 1.5 mm). The corresponding values for the room temperature group were 60.6 (1.4) and 59.0 (3.5). There was a statistically significant difference between corresponding measurements taken at the top and bottom for the pre-heated and room temperature groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between top and bottom measurements within each group. Pre-heating resin composite reduces its pre-cured viscosity and enhances its subsequent surface hardness. These effects may translate as easier placement together with an increased degree of polymerization and depth-of-cure.
    • The effectiveness of 2-implant overdentures - a pragmatic international multicentre study.

      Rashid, F; Awad, M A; Thomason, J M; Piovano, A; Spielberg, G P; Scilingo, E; Mojon, P; Müller, F; Spielberg, M; Heydecke, G; et al. (2011-03)
      The purpose of this multicentre observational study was to determine patient satisfaction with either conventional dentures or mandibular 2-implant overdentures in a 'real world' setting. Two hundred and three edentulous patients (mean age 68·8 ± 10·4 years) were recruited at eight centres located in North America, South America and Europe. The patients were provided with new mandibular conventional dentures or implant overdentures supported by two implants and ball attachments. At baseline and at 6 months post-treatment, they rated their satisfaction with their mandibular prostheses on 100-mm visual analogue scale questionnaires. One hundred and two (50·2%) participants had valid baseline and 6-month satisfaction data. Although both groups reported improvements, the implant overdenture group reported significantly higher ratings of overall satisfaction, comfort, stability, ability to speak and ability to chew. These results suggest that edentulous patients who choose mandibular implant overdentures have significantly greater improvements in satisfaction, despite their relatively higher cost, than those who choose new conventional dentures.
    • Endodontic treatment completion following emergency pulpectomy.

      Lynch, C D; Burke, F M; Ríordáin, R Ní; Hannigan, A; Cardiff University School of Dentistry, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XY, UK. LynchCD@cardiff.ac.uk (2010-06)
      Emergency pulpectomy is frequently performed to relieve pain experienced by patients following acute episodes of endodontic pain, or to limit the risks of infection or possible root resorption following traumatic pulpal exposures. The aim of this study was to examine subsequent patient attendance for completion of root canal treatment following pulpectomy procedures in a dental emergency unit.
    • Factors influencing the provision of removable partial dentures by dentists in Ireland.

      Allen, Finbarr; Cork Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork. f.allen@ucc.ie (2011-03-15)
      Factors influencing clinical treatment of partially dentate patients are varied, and there is a need to identify factors influencing success in the provision of removable partial dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Ireland towards tooth replacement and use of RPDs, in partially dentate older adults. The sample frame was the Register of Dentists in Ireland; data were also collected from a sample of dentists practising under NHS regulations in Northern Ireland. Validated questionnaires were sent to all dentists on the Register of Dentists in the Republic of Ireland, and dentists working under NHS regulations registered with the Central Services Agency in Northern Ireland. Content of the questionnaire included details of the dentist themselves, their dental practice and the profile of partial denture provision. They were also asked to give their views on factors influencing the success or failure of an RPD, the process of providing RPDs and their attitudes to RPD provision. A total of 1,143 responses were received, a response rate of 45%. A mean number of 61 RPDs per annum were provided, with 75% of dentures provided being acrylic based. Respondents indicate their belief that cobalt-chromium based dentures had a longer prognosis than acrylic dentures, but less than half (46%) claim to design the frameworks themselves. Patients' attitudes are considered influential in the success of RPD provision, and their influence on appearance is considered the most important factor influencing success. The most important factors influencing failure are: the patient not requesting a denture; an RPD restoring unbounded saddles; and, lower RPDs. Although considered important, approximately 60% of the sample do not routinely organise follow-up appointments for patients provided with RPDs. The fee structures in the DTSS and DTBS are considered a barrier to quality in the provision of partial dentures.
    • Factors influencing the provision of removable partial dentures by dentists in Ireland.

      Allen, Finbarr; Cork Dental School and Hospital, Wilton, Cork. f.allen@ucc.ie (Irish Dental Association, 2010-10)
      Factors influencing clinical treatment of partially dentate patients are varied, and there is a need to identify factors influencing success in the provision of removable partial dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Ireland towards tooth replacement and use of RPDs, in partially dentate older adults. The sample frame was the Register of Dentists in Ireland; data were also collected from a sample of dentists practising under NHS regulations in Northern Ireland. Validated questionnaires were sent to all dentists on the Register of Dentists in the Republic of Ireland, and dentists working under NHS regulations registered with the Central Services Agency in Northern Ireland. Content of the questionnaire included details of the dentist themselves, their dental practice and the profile of partial denture provision. They were also asked to give their views on factors influencing the success or failure of an RPD, the process of providing RPDs and their attitudes to RPD provision. A total of 1,143 responses were received, a response rate of 45%. A mean number of 61 RPDs per annum were provided, with 75% of dentures provided being acrylic based. Respondents indicate their belief that cobalt-chromium based dentures had a longer prognosis than acrylic dentures, but less than half (46%) claim to design the frameworks themselves. Patients' attitudes are considered influential in the success of RPD provision, and their influence on appearance is considered the most important factor influencing success. The most important factors influencing failure are: the patient not requesting a denture; an RPD restoring unbounded saddles; and, lower RPDs. Although considered important, approximately 60% of the sample do not routinely organise follow-up appointments for patients provided with RPDs. The fee structures in the DTSS and DTBS are considered a barrier to quality in the provision of partial dentures.
    • Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

      Burke, F M; Whelton, H; Harding, M; Crowley, E; O'Mullane, D; Cronin, M; Kelleher, V; Byrtek, M; Oral Health Services Research Centre, University Dental School and Hospital, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. f.burke@ucc.ie (2010-10)
      The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.