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  • Current management of adults receiving oral anti-cancer medications: A scoping review.

    Richmond, J P; Kelly, M G; Johnston, A; Murphy, P J; Murphy, A W (2021-08-14)
    Purpose: Oral anti-cancer medication (OAM) has revolutionised oncology care. Due to their potential toxicities and associated safety challenges ongoing assessment and monitoring is essential; currently generally performed in acute care settings. Internationally there exists a transformative vision to shift patient care from acute to primary care. A nurse-led integrated model of care could be developed for OAM patient management in primary care. The aim of this study was to examine international literature regarding current clinical management practices for assessment and monitoring of patients receiving OAM. Methods: Following PRISMA-ScR guidelines, databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched for English studies published between 2010 and 2020 using keywords: assessment, cancer, care, management, oral anticancer medications. Articles were screened and assessed for eligibility. From eligible studies, data were extracted to summarize, collate and make a narrative account of the findings. Results: 2261 papers were reviewed, 14 met inclusion criteria. Three phases of management are reported: 1. Patient treatment plan development; 2. Patient education; 3. Patient monitoring. Within these phases seven specific stages of care were identified broadly representing the patient's journey: (1) treatment decision, (2) prescribing of OAM, (3) OAM dispensing and administration, (4) maximising patient safety (5) ongoing patient assessment (6) patient support (7) communication with other health-care professionals. Conclusions: Despite a paucity of international literature, a dedicated OAM clinic was endorsed as a means to achieve improved care. Nurses and pharmacists were identified as being of particular importance especially in education and ongoing management of patients receiving OAMs.
  • Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Wound Bundles in Emergency Midline Laparotomy Identifies That It Is Time for Improvement.

    Mc Geehan, Gearóid; Edelduok, Itoro M; Bucholc, Magda; Watson, Angus; Bodnar, Zsolt; Johnston, Alison; Sugrue, Michael (2021-02-11)
    Background: Emergency midline laparotomy is the cornerstone of survival in patients with peritonitis. While bundling of care elements has been shown to optimize outcomes, this has focused on elective rather than emergency abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of factors affecting the development of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing midline emergency laparotomy. Methods: An ethically approved, PROSPERO registered (ID: CRD42020193246) meta-analysis and systematic review, searching PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library electronic databases from January 2015 to June 2020 and adhering to PRISMA guidelines was undertaken. Search headings included "emergency surgery", "laparotomy", "surgical site infection", "midline incision" and "wound bundle". Suitable publications were graded using Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS); papers scoring ≥16/24 were included for data analysis. The primary outcome in this study was SSI rates following the use of wound bundles. Secondary outcomes consisted of the effect of the individual interventions included in the bundles and the SSI rates for superficial and deep infections. Five studies focusing on closure techniques were grouped to assess their effect on SSI. Results: This study identified 1875 articles. A total of 58 were potentially suitable, and 11 were included after applying MINORS score. The final cohort included 2,856 patients from eight countries. Three papers came from the USA, two papers from Japan and the remainder from Denmark, England, Iran, Netherlands, Spain and Turkey. There was a 32% non-significant SSI reduction after the implementation of wound bundles (RR = 0.68; CI, 0.39-1.17; p = 0.16). In bundles used for technical closure the reduction in SSI of 15% was non-significant (RR = 0.85; CI, 0.57-1.26; p = 0.41). Analysis of an effective wound bundle was limited due to insufficient data. Conclusions: This study identified a significant deficit in the world literature relating to emergency laparotomy and wound outcome optimisation. Given the global burden of emergency general surgery urgent action is needed to assess bundle's ability to potentially improve outcome after emergency laparotomy.
  • Current management of adults receiving oral anti-cancer medications: A scoping review protocol.

    Richmond, Janice P; Kelly, Mary Grace; Johnston, Alison; Hynes, Lisa; Murphy, Patrick J; Murphy, Andrew W (2022-03-09)
    Oncology has been undergoing a profound transition in the last ten years with the increased usage in oral anti-cancer medication. Approximately 25% of all anti-cancer medication is now designed for oral use and this is likely to increase prospectively. These treatments are convenient for patients and are often preferred by them, yet there are similar safety and toxicity concerns as there are to intravenous treatment. Oral anti-cancer medications (OAMs) have the potential to alleviate capacity issues in cancer treating units as patients receive their treatment at home, however there remains a requirement for safe and efficient assessment and care. Consequently, the management of patients on OAMs is of paramount importance. The optimum setting, whether within primary or secondary care, in addition to the appropriate health care professional to carry out patient assessment and monitoring needs to be established. This paper presents a protocol for a scoping review which aims to systematically and comprehensively map the literature on the current management of adults receiving OAMs. The review will follow the published guidance to direct the various steps involved. The protocol will be guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) framework to ensure methodological and reporting quality. Independent full text review will be performed by two reviewers and any disagreements resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. The process will be iterative in nature. This scoping review will provide a narrative synthesis and map the literature on the management of individuals receiving OAMs. This work is an appropriate initial stage in presenting the literature to inform the subsequent steps in a multi-phased research study which aims to establish and analyse the safety and efficacy of an integrated care model for the management of patients receiving OAM in the community by an advanced practitioner.
  • Acceptability of a Mobile Health Behavior Change Intervention for Cancer Survivors With Obesity or Overweight: Nested Mixed Methods Study Within a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Groarke, Jenny M; Richmond, Janice; Mc Sharry, Jenny; Groarke, AnnMarie; Harney, Owen M; Kelly, Mary Grace; Walsh, Jane C; Letterkenny University Hospital (2021-02-16)
    Background A significant proportion of cancer survivors have overweight or obesity. Although this has negative implications for health, weight management is not a standard component of oncology aftercare. Mobile health (mHealth) technology, in combination with behavior change techniques (BCTs), has the potential to support positive lifestyle changes. Few studies have been carried out with cancer survivors; therefore, the acceptability of these tools and techniques requires further investigation. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the acceptability of a behavior change intervention using mHealth for cancer survivors with a BMI of 25 or more and to gather constructive feedback from participants. Methods The intervention consisted of educational sessions and an 8-week physical activity goal setting intervention delivered using mobile technology (ie, Fitbit activity monitor plus SMS contact). In the context of a two-arm randomized controlled trial, semistructured interviews were conducted to assess the retrospective acceptability of the intervention from the perspective of the recipients. The theoretical framework for the acceptability of health care interventions was used to inform a topic guide. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. A quantitative survey was also conducted to determine the acceptability of the intervention. A total of 13 participants were interviewed, and 36 participants completed the quantitative survey. Results The results strongly support the acceptability of the intervention. The majority of the survey respondents held a positive attitude toward the intervention (35/36, 97%). In qualitative reports, many of the intervention components were enjoyed and the mHealth components (ie, Fitbit and goal setting through text message contact) were rated especially positively. Responses were mixed as to whether the burden of participating in the intervention was high (6/36, 17%) or low (5/36, 14%). Participants perceived the intervention as having high efficacy in improving health and well-being (34/36, 94%). Most respondents said that they understood how the intervention works (35/36, 97%), and qualitative data show that participants’ understanding of the aim of the intervention was broader than weight management and focused more on moving on psychologically from cancer. Conclusions On the basis of the coherence of responses with theorized aspects of intervention acceptability, we are confident that this intervention using mHealth and BCTs is acceptable to cancer survivors with obesity or overweight. Participants made several recommendations concerning the additional provision of social support. Future studies are needed to assess the feasibility of delivery in clinical practice and the acceptability of the intervention to those delivering the intervention.
  • Trauma quality indicators: internationally approved core factors for trauma management quality evaluation.

    Coccolini, Federico; Kluger, Yoram; Moore, Ernest E; Maier, Ronald V; Coimbra, Raul; Ordoñez, Carlos; Ivatury, Rao; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Biffl, Walter; Sartelli, Massimo; et al. (2021-02-23)
    Introduction: Quality in medical care must be measured in order to be improved. Trauma management is part of health care, and by definition, it must be checked constantly. The only way to measure quality and outcomes is to systematically accrue data and analyze them. Material and methods: A systematic revision of the literature about quality indicators in trauma associated to an international consensus conference RESULTS: An internationally approved base core set of 82 trauma quality indicators was obtained: Indicators were divided into 6 fields: prevention, structure, process, outcome, post-traumatic management, and society integrational effects. Conclusion: Present trauma quality indicator core set represents the result of an international effort aiming to provide a useful tool in quality evaluation and improvement. Further improvement may only be possible through international trauma registry development. This will allow for huge international data accrual permitting to evaluate results and compare outcomes.
  • Correction to: Intraoperative surgical site infection control and prevention: a position paper and future addendum to WSES intra-abdominal infections guidelines.

    De Simone, Belinda; Sartelli, Massimo; Coccolini, Federico; Ball, Chad G; Brambillasca, Pietro; Chiarugi, Massimo; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Nita, Gabriela; Corbella, Davide; Leppaniemi, Ari; et al. (2021-04-14)
  • Comparing Single-Page, Multipage, and Conversational Digital Forms in Health Care: Usability Study.

    Iftikhar, Aleeha; Bond, Raymond R; McGilligan, Victoria; Leslie, Stephen J; Rjoob, Khaled; Knoery, Charles; Quigg, Ciara; Campbell, Ryan; Boyd, Kyle; MC SHANE, ANNE; et al. (2021-05-26)
    Background: Even in the era of digital technology, several hospitals still rely on paper-based forms for data entry for patient admission, triage, drug prescriptions, and procedures. Paper-based forms can be quick and convenient to complete but often at the expense of data quality, completeness, sustainability, and automated data analytics. Digital forms can improve data quality by assisting the user when deciding on the appropriate response to certain data inputs (eg, classifying symptoms). Greater data quality via digital form completion not only helps with auditing, service improvement, and patient record keeping but also helps with novel data science and machine learning research. Although digital forms are becoming more prevalent in health care, there is a lack of empirical best practices and guidelines for their design. The study-based hospital had a definite plan to abolish the paper form; hence, it was not necessary to compare the digital forms with the paper form. Objective: This study aims to assess the usability of three different interactive forms: a single-page digital form (in which all data input is required on one web page), a multipage digital form, and a conversational digital form (a chatbot). Methods: The three digital forms were developed as candidates to replace the current paper-based form used to record patient referrals to an interventional cardiology department (Cath-Lab) at Altnagelvin Hospital. We recorded usability data in a counterbalanced usability test (60 usability tests: 20 subjects×3 form usability tests). The usability data included task completion times, System Usability Scale (SUS) scores, User Experience Questionnaire data, and data from a postexperiment questionnaire. Results: We found that the single-page form outperformed the other two digital forms in almost all usability metrics. The mean SUS score for the single-page form was 76 (SD 15.8; P=.01) when compared with the multipage form, which had a mean score of 67 (SD 17), and the conversational form attained the lowest scores in usability testing and was the least preferred choice of users, with a mean score of 57 (SD 24). An SUS score of >68 was considered above average. The single-page form achieved the least task completion time compared with the other two digital form styles. Conclusions: In conclusion, the digital single-page form outperformed the other two forms in almost all usability metrics; it had the least task completion time compared with those of the other two digital forms. Moreover, on answering the open-ended question from the final customized postexperiment questionnaire, the single-page form was the preferred choice.
  • Intraoperative surgical site infection control and prevention: a position paper and future addendum to WSES intra-abdominal infections guidelines.

    De Simone, Belinda; Sartelli, Massimo; Coccolini, Federico; Ball, Chad G; Brambillasca, Pietro; Chiarugi, Massimo; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Nita, Gabriela; Corbella, Davide; Leppaniemi, Ari; et al. (2020-02-10)
    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) represent a considerable burden for healthcare systems. They are largely preventable and multiple interventions have been proposed over past years in an attempt to prevent SSI. We aim to provide a position paper on Operative Room (OR) prevention of SSI in patients presenting with intra-abdominal infection to be considered a future addendum to the well-known World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Guidelines on the management of intra-abdominal infections. Methods: The literature was searched for focused publications on SSI until March 2019. Critical analysis and grading of the literature has been performed by a working group of experts; the literature review and the statements were evaluated by a Steering Committee of the WSES. Results: Wound protectors and antibacterial sutures seem to have effective roles to prevent SSI in intra-abdominal infections. The application of negative-pressure wound therapy in preventing SSI can be useful in reducing postoperative wound complications. It is important to pursue normothermia with the available resources in the intraoperative period to decrease SSI rate. The optimal knowledge of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of antibiotics helps to decide when additional intraoperative antibiotic doses should be administered in patients with intra-abdominal infections undergoing emergency surgery to prevent SSI. Conclusions: The current position paper offers an extensive overview of the available evidence regarding surgical site infection control and prevention in patients having intra-abdominal infections.
  • Perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer: WSES guidelines.

    Tarasconi, Antonio; Coccolini, Federico; Biffl, Walter L; Tomasoni, Matteo; Ansaloni, Luca; Picetti, Edoardo; Molfino, Sarah; Shelat, Vishal; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Weber, Dieter G; et al. (2020-01-07)
    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is common with a lifetime prevalence in the general population of 5-10% and an incidence of 0.1-0.3% per year. Despite a sharp reduction in incidence and rates of hospital admission and mortality over the past 30 years, complications are still encountered in 10-20% of these patients. Peptic ulcer disease remains a significant healthcare problem, which can consume considerable financial resources. Management may involve various subspecialties including surgeons, gastroenterologists, and radiologists. Successful management of patients with complicated peptic ulcer (CPU) involves prompt recognition, resuscitation when required, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and timely surgical/radiological treatment. Methods: The present guidelines have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. To create these guidelines, a panel of experts was designed and charged by the board of the WSES to perform a systematic review of the available literature and to provide evidence-based statements with immediate practical application. All the statements were presented and discussed during the 5th WSES Congress, and for each statement, a consensus among the WSES panel of experts was reached. Conclusions: The population considered in these guidelines is adult patients with suspected complicated peptic ulcer disease. These guidelines present evidence-based international consensus statements on the management of complicated peptic ulcer from a collaboration of a panel of experts and are intended to improve the knowledge and the awareness of physicians around the world on this specific topic. We divided our work into the two main topics, bleeding and perforated peptic ulcer, and structured it into six main topics that cover the entire management process of patients with complicated peptic ulcer, from diagnosis at ED arrival to post-discharge antimicrobial therapy, to provide an up-to-date, easy-to-use tool that can help physicians and surgeons during the decision-making process.
  • New-onset lone maternal atrial fibrillation: A case report.

    Janjua, Nusrat Batool; Birmani, Suhaib Akhtar; McDonagh, Thomas; Hameed, Abdul; McKernan, Matthew (2020-02)
    Rationale: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is encountered rarely in pregnancy. Management of maternal AF is challenging as it poses a threat to both maternal and fetal well-being. Patient concerns: We report a case of a 35 weeks pregnant woman who presented in emergency with sudden-onset palpitations and mild shortness of breath with no personal/family history of cardiac diseases. Diagnoses: Patient's pulse was irregularly irregular with an average rate of 179 beats per minute. The obstetric examination was normal. Diagnosis: High-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) was elevated. The 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) confirmed AF. The obstetric ultrasound, electronic fetal heart rate (EFHR) trace, and maternal echocardiography were normal. Interventions: The patient was admitted under joint cardiology and obstetric care and monitored with continuous telemetry. She was commenced on a therapeutic dose of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and intravenous fluid. She received a single 200 Joule synchronized direct current (DC) shock under general anesthesia in operation theater, which reverted the rhythm back to normal. EFHR monitoring was normal pre- and post-DC cardioversion. We acknowledge the unwise use of therapeutic dose of LMWH before DC cardioversion (DCCV) because of a potential need for emergency cesarean delivery for maternal and/or fetal compromise. Outcome: The patient remained well and in sinus rhythm after cardioversion. She was discharged home the following day on Flecainide (anti-arrhythmic) and therapeutic dose of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and followed up in outpatient clinics frequently. She had a baby at term and received prophylactic LMWH for 10 days post-cesarean. She was discharged from cardiology clinic when she was 10 weeks postnatal, and Flecainide was discontinued. Lessons: We are reporting this case because of the rarity of the condition and successful use of DCCV for treating maternal AF. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) level is a useful laboratory indicator to gauge the severity of AF in pregnancy. We emphasize to make the arrangements for EFHR monitoring and potential cesarean delivery and advocate cautious use of thromboprophylaxis while planning for electrical cardioversion (ECV) for maternal AF.
  • Combined Patients and Medical Related Cosmetic Breast Cancer Outcomes—A Preferred Approach to Outcomes Assessment

    Sugrue, Michael; Johnston, Alison; Degnim, Amy; Rubio, Isabel T.; Van den Tol, M. Petrouska; Djohan, Risal; Valentine, Mark; Mac Gregor, Geraldine; 1. Breast Centre North West, Letterkenny University Hospital, Donegal, Ireland 2. Donegal Clinical Research Academy, Donegal, Ireland. 3. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NY, USA. 4. Vall d’Hebron Hospital Universitario, Barcelona, Spain. 5&6 University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands (Advances in Breast Cancer Research, 2018-12)
    Introduction: Reducing positive margins and need for re-excision yet maintaining cosmesis is key in breast cancer surgery. This study describes the evaluation of early outcomes of a combined cosmetic assessment programme following breast conservation surgery (BCS). Methods: An ethically approved prospective study was conducted at Letterkenny University Hospital and a 15-month timeframe was chosen. All consecutive patients undergoing conservative breast surgery with complete local excision, from July 2015 to October 2016, were entered into the study. Patients undergoing mastectomy and reconstruction with either implant or autologous tissue were not included. 41 patients undergoing BCS were analysed. Objective and subjective cosmetic evaluations were carried out. Assessments used were the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment—cosmetic results [BCCT.core 2.0] Software, a panel of 4 experts in breast surgery and the Breast Cancer Treatment Outcome Scale (BCTOS). Demographic and pathological data, breast excision weight, % breast volume excised (BVE), margin positivity, complications and re-excision were documented. Data was expressed as mean and standard deviation for normally distributed data and medians and inter quartile range for non-normal data. Scores were also dichotomised to excellent/good and fair/poor and results were analysed. Results: 41 patients’ mean age is 55 ± 13 years. Mean breast volume was 768.3 cm3 ± 440; BVE weighed 78.6g ± 42.6 (18.9 - 214.4) and %BVE 11.3% ± 5.2% (5.1 - 23.3). Re-excision rate was 2/41 (4.9%) all for positive margins. 0/41 infections or haematomas occurred.
  • Proceedings of resources for optimal care of acute care and emergency surgery consensus summit Donegal Ireland.

    Sugrue, M; Maier, R; Moore, E E; Boermeester, M; Catena, F; Coccolini, F; Leppaniemi, A; Peitzman, A; Velmahos, G; Ansaloni, L; et al. (World Journal of Emergency Surgery, 2017-01-01)
    Opportunities to improve emergency surgery outcomes exist through guided better practice and reduced variability. Few attempts have been made to define optimal care in emergency surgery, and few clinically derived key performance indicators (KPIs) have been published. A summit was therefore convened to look at resources for optimal care of emergency surgery. The aim of the Donegal Summit was to set a platform in place to develop guidelines and KPIs in emergency surgery. The project had multidisciplinary global involvement in producing consensus statements regarding emergency surgery care in key areas, and to assess feasibility of producing KPIs that could be used to monitor process and outcome of care in the future. Forty-four key opinion leaders in emergency surgery, across 7 disciplines from 17 countries, composed evidence-based position papers on 14 key areas of emergency surgery and 112 KPIs in 20 acute conditions or emergency systems. The summit was successful in achieving position papers and KPIs in emergency surgery. While position papers were limited by non-graded evidence and non-validated KPIs, the process set a foundation for the future advancement of emergency surgery.
  • Variations in Abnormal Nipple Discharge Management in Women- a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Leong, Alison; Johnston, Alison; Sugrue, Michael (Journal of surgery, 2018-07)
    Nipple discharge accounts for 5% of referrals to breast units; breast cancer in image negative nipple discharge patients varies from 0 to 21%. This systematic review and meta-analysis determined variability in breast cancer rates in nipple discharge patients, diagnostic accuracy of modalities and surgery rates. An ethically approved meta-analysis was conducted using databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to July 2015. For the breast cancer rates’ review, studies were excluded if no clinical follow-up data was available. For the diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis, studies were excluded if there was no reference standard, or the number of true and false positives and negatives were not known. Pooled sensitivities were determined using Mantel-Haenszel method. For the surgery rates’ review, only studies with consecutive nipple discharge patients were included. Average risk of having a breast cancer is 10.2% in nipple discharge patients. Most studies reported an age threshold of 50 above which breast cancer risk greatly increases. Pooled sensitivities of ultrasound, mammogram, mammogram and ultrasound, breast MRI, conventional galactography, smear cytology, ductal lavage cytology and ductoscopy were 0.64, 0.34, 0.65, 0.81, 0.75, 0.37, 0.49 and 0.82 respectively. Average surgery rate was 43.4%. Malignancy rate of 10.2% indicates the need to continue surgery, especially for patients aged over 50. Patients below 50, in the absence of risk factors such as family history, can be managed conservatively with close follow up.
  • 2017 update of the WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias.

    Birindelli, Arianna; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Campanelli, Giampiero; Khokha, Vladimir; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew; et al. (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias may be associated with worsen outcome and a significant rate of postoperative complications. There is no consensus on management of complicated abdominal hernias. The main matter of debate is about the use of mesh in case of intestinal resection and the type of mesh to be used. Wound infection is the most common complication encountered and represents an immense burden especially in the presence of a mesh. The recurrence rate is an important topic that influences the final outcome. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013 with the aim to define recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. In 2016, the guidelines have been revised and updated according to the most recent available literature.
  • Update from the Abdominal Compartment Society (WSACS) on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: past, present, and future beyond Banff 2017.

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Sugrue, Michael; McKee, Jessica L; Pereira, Bruno M; Roberts, Derek J; De Waele, Jan J; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ejike, Janeth C; Reintam Blaser, Annika; D'Amours, Scott; et al. (Via Medica Journals, 2017)
  • Breast cancer risk assessment and screening - Is it a persistent problem in a rural population?

    Johnston, Alison; Neary, Shane; Sugrue, Michael; Department of Breast Surgery, Breast Centre North West, Letterkenny University Hospital, Donegal Clinical Research Academy, Ireland (Remedy Publications LLC, 2017-08-09)
    Trend analysis of breast screening uptake in those meeting screening criteria that were newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Retrospective review of all breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014. Patients’ demographics, screening, risk assessment, pathological stages and surgical treatment utilization were recorded. 150 patients, mean ages 55.4 ± 10.2 years (range 29–90), were studied. Overall 65/150 (43.3%) had optimal screening pre cancer diagnosis and 85/150 (56.7%) suboptimal. The trend in optimal screening improved from 30% to 60% over the study period. The mean overall tumour size (excluding DCIS patients) in 131 patients was 32.8 mm; 26.9 mm in optimally and 38.5 mm in the suboptimally screened groups (p = 0.06 x2 df8). 113/150 (75.3%) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and 37/150 (24.7%) late stage. Principally late stage at diagnosis was within the group with suboptimal screening; 100%, 100%, 63.6%, 75% and 60% respectively for years 2010–2014. This study identified improving trends in compliance with international screening and risk assessment guidelines. Failure to screen results in more advanced disease; further public health measures to engage appropriate screening may improve stage at presentation and breast cancer outcomes.
  • Targeting breast cancer outcomes-what about the primary relatives?

    Johnston, Alison; Sugrue, Michael (Wiley-Blackwell, 2017-07)
    Up to 65% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients had not been screened correctly before diagnosis resulting in increased stage of cancer at presentation. This study assessed whether their primary relatives are, in turn, assessed appropriately.
  • A user's guide to intra-abdominal pressure measurement.

    Sugrue, Michael; De Waele, Jan J; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Roberts, Derek J; Malbrain, Manu L N G (Anaesthesiology intensive therapy, 2015)
    The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is a key to diagnosing and managing critically ill medical and surgical patients. There are an increasing number of techniques that allow us to measure the IAP at the bedside. This paper reviews these techniques. IAP should be measured at end-expiration, with the patient in the supine position and ensuring that there is no abdominal muscle activity. The intravesicular IAP measurement is convenient and considered the gold standard. The level where the mid-axillary line crosses the iliac crest is the recommended zero reference for the transvesicular IAP measurement; moreover, marking this level on the patient increases reproducibility. Protocols for IAP measurement should be developed for each ICU based on the locally available tools and equipment. IAP measurement techniques are safe, reproducible and accurate and do not increase the risk of urinary tract infection. Continuous IAP measurement may offer benefits in specific situations in the future. In conclusion, the IAP measurement is a reliable and essential adjunct to the management of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension.
  • 2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis.

    Ansaloni, L; Pisano, M; Coccolini, F; Peitzmann, A B; Fingerhut, A; Catena, F; Agresta, F; Allegri, A; Bailey, I; Balogh, Z J; et al. (World journal of emergency surgery : WJES, 2016)
    Acute calculus cholecystitis is a very common disease with several area of uncertainty. The World Society of Emergency Surgery developed extensive guidelines in order to cover grey areas. The diagnostic criteria, the antimicrobial therapy, the evaluation of associated common bile duct stones, the identification of "high risk" patients, the surgical timing, the type of surgery, and the alternatives to surgery are discussed. Moreover the algorithm is proposed: as soon as diagnosis is made and after the evaluation of choledocholitiasis risk, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be offered to all patients exception of those with high risk of morbidity or mortality. These Guidelines must be considered as an adjunctive tool for decision but they are not substitute of the clinical judgement for the individual patient.
  • The Centricity Score: A Novel Measurement to Aid in Conservative Breast Cancer Surgery

    Sugrue, Ryan; McGowan, Katherine; McNamara, Cillian; Sugrue, Michael (Advances in Breast Cancer Research, 2014-10)
    Introduction: This study describes an intra-operative scoring system to advise the surgeon of the centricity of the tumour in the excised specimen. Methods: Spatial estimations were prospectively made in 10 consecutive patients undergoing wide local excision (WLE) using Bioptics intra-operative digital specimen imaging. The centricity score was defined as 100 – (ICD/SD × 100), where ICD is the inter-centre distance between the specimen’s centre and the tumour’s centre. Results: 10 patients with invasive breast cancer (T1b to T4a), mean age 56 years (range 44 - 71) were studied. The mean tumour and specimen diameter was 24 mm ± 10 (range 12 - 48) and 101 mm ± 22 (range 64 - 140). The mean centricity score was 86 ± 9 (range 65 - 95). Conclusion: This study successfully describes an intraoperative radiological spatial scoring system for patients undergoing WLE. Tumours were well centered in specimens with an overall score of 86/100. The centricity score could be used to guide excision and potentially set benchmarks for conservative breast surgery.

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