• The impact of smoking status on the health status of heart failure patients.

      Conard, Mark W; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Spertus, John A; Department of Behavioral Health, St James Hospital & Health Centers, Olympia, Fields, IL 60461, USA. mwc13c@gmail.com (2012-02-01)
      Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking's effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.