Ireland's central source for Open Access health research
Lenus, the Irish Health Research repository is the leading source for Irish research in health and social care. The Lenus collections include peer reviewed journal articles, grey literature, dissertations, reports and conference presentations. Lenus contains the publications of the Irish Health Service Executive (HSE) and the collected research output of over 130 health organisations past and present are all freely accessible.
If you are an Irish researcher or have conducted research in an Irish institution or health organisation, you can add your published research to Lenus. Submitted articles must be available in Open Access format or the publisher's policy must permit author self archiving. Advice on Open Access publishing and publishers' policies is available on the 'Open Access Publishing Guide' and 'Publishers' policies' pages available on the left-hand menu.
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HSE Open Access Research Awards 2020
Despite the obstacles presented by the coronavirus, the HSE Open Access Awards went ahead as usual this year, in an all-virtual form. The usual range of subject categories was replaced by just one: Covid-19, and the presentation ceremony took place on Friday 11th December 2020.
The standard of entries was excellent, and external judge Professor Jonathan Drennan said it was extremely hard to choose between them. “It was an extremely difficult decision – they were extremely high quality – but it’s an enjoyable process. It was great to see the quality and standards reviewed across all the applications.”
The winners of the HSE Open Access Awards 2020 are:
Dale Francis Whelehan and colleagues: COVID-19 and surgery: A thematic analysis of unintended consequences on performance, practice and surgical training.
Dónal Ó Mathúna and colleagues: Clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans: A systematic review and series of meta-analyses.
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Translation initiation downstream from annotated start codons in human mRNAs coevolves with the Kozak context.Eukaryotic translation initiation involves preinitiation ribosomal complex 5'-to-3' directional probing of mRNA for codons suitable for starting protein synthesis. The recognition of codons as starts depends on the codon identity and on its immediate nucleotide context known as Kozak context. When the context is weak (i.e., nonoptimal), leaky scanning takes place during which a fraction of ribosomes continues the mRNA probing. We explored the relationship between the context of AUG codons annotated as starts of protein-coding sequences and the next AUG codon occurrence. We found that AUG codons downstream from weak starts occur in the same frame more frequently than downstream from strong starts. We suggest that evolutionary selection on in-frame AUGs downstream from weak start codons is driven by the advantage of the reduction of wasteful out-of-frame product synthesis and also by the advantage of producing multiple proteoforms from certain mRNAs. We confirmed translation initiation downstream from weak start codons using ribosome profiling data. We also tested translation of alternative start codons in 10 specific human genes using reporter constructs. In all tested cases, initiation at downstream start codons was more productive than at the annotated ones. In most cases, optimization of Kozak context did not completely abolish downstream initiation, and in the specific example of CMPK1 mRNA, the optimized start remained unproductive. Collectively, our work reveals previously uncharacterized forces shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes and points to the plurality of translation initiation and the existence of sequence features influencing start codon selection, other than Kozak context.